What is Zener diode?
How does a Zener diode work? Why it is used as a voltage regulator?
A scientist Zener invented the properties of Zener diode that’s why it is named after him. It is nothing but a simple diode connecting in reverse bias. So the Zener diode is a PN junction diode that flows currently in the forward direction similarly to the conventional PN junction diode but in the reverse-biased, it also permits the flow of current (dramatic increase in current) when the applied voltage reached above a certain value; We know this value of voltage as the Zener knee voltage or Zener breakdown voltage, or peak inverse voltage.
The electron quantum tunneling under high electric field strength handles the reverse breakdown effect, and we know this effect as the Zener effect.
Application of Zener Diode
The constant reverse voltage of a Zener diode renders it a very useful component in regulating the output voltage against variations in the input voltage or load resistance from an unregulated power supply. The current through the Zener diode will change in order to keep the voltage within the threshold limits of Zener action and the maximum power it can dissipate.
With the help of these types of properties, we can use Zener diode as:
Voltage regulator, peak clippers, switching operations, reference elements, overvoltage protector, as a voltage reference, surge suppressors for device protection, and in meter protection, etc.