A stroke occurs when the blood flow to the brain is interrupted long enough to cause damage.
This may be caused by a clot formed in an artery in the brain or carried to the brain in the bloodstream, a ruptured artery in the brain, or by compression of an artery in the brain, as found with brain tumors.
First aid consists primarily of recognizing signs and symptoms and seeking professional attention.
Signs and symptoms of a stroke include:
• Weakness and numbness of the face, arm, or leg, often on one side of the body only.
• Ringing in the ears
• A change of mood
• Difficulty in speaking
• Pupils of uneven size
• Difficulty in breathing and swallowing
• Loss of bowel and bladder control
IF YOU SUSPECT A PERSON IS HAVING A STROKE, STOP WHATEVER THEY ARE DOING AND MAKE THEM REST.
PROMPTLY OBTAIN PROFESSIONAL HELP. Reassure the victim and keep them comfortable. Do not give anything by mouth. If the victim vomits, allow for fluids to drain from the mouth. Observe carefully while awaiting professional help and, if trained to do so, monitor the airway, breathing, and circulation and BE PREPARED TO ADMINISTER RESCUE BREATHING OR CPR, IF REQUIRED!
SEIZURES are fairly common occurrences, but are very misunderstood! Seizures, per se, are not a specific condition. Rather, they may be caused by many different types of conditions such as insulin shock, high fevers, viral infections of the brain, head injuries, or drug reactions.
When seizures recur with no identifiable cause, the person is said to have epilepsy.
Signs and Symptoms
Many individuals have a warning AURA (or sensation) before the onset of a seizure. Many times, a person about to have a seizure will physically move from danger (as from the edge of a train platform) before the seizure begins.
Seizures can range from mild to severe. Mild seizures may take place and end in a matter of seconds.
Severe seizures may involve uncontrollable muscle spasms, rigidity, loss of consciousness, loss of bladder and bowel control, and sometimes, breathing that stops temporarily. Many epileptics carry cards or bracelets which identify their condition.
Summon professional help. Prevent the person from injuring himself or herself by moving furniture or equipment.
DO NOT ATTEMPT TO RESTRAIN A PERSON SUFFERING A SEIZURE AND PUT nothing IN THEIR MOUTH!
Loosen clothing. If they vomit, turn on their side to allow fluids to drain. Stay with the person until they are fully conscious. If trained, administer rescue breathing or CPR, if required.
2.16 Heat Emergencies
There are three types of heat emergencies we may require you to treat.
• Heat Stroke
This is the most serious type of heat emergency. It is LIFE-THREATENING and requires IMMEDIATE and AGGRESSIVE treatment!
Heat stroke occurs when the body’s heat-regulating mechanism fails. The body temperature rises so high that brain damage –and death– may result unless the body is cooled quickly.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS:
The victim’s skin is HOT, RED, and usually DRY. Pupils are very small. The body temperature is VERY HIGH, sometimes as high as 105 degrees.
Remember, Heat Stroke is a life-threatening emergency and requires prompt action! Summon professional help. Get the victim into a cool place.
COOL THE VICTIM AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE IN ANY MANNER POSSIBLE! PLACE THE VICTIM INTO A BATHTUB OF COOL WATER OR WRAP IN WET SHEETS OR PLACE IN AN AIR-CONDITIONED ROOM.
Do not give the victim anything by mouth. Treat for shock.
• Heat Exhaustion
Heat exhaustion is less dangerous than heat stroke. It is caused by the fluid loss which in turn causes blood flow to decrease in vital organs, resulting in a form of shock.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
COOL, PALE AND MOIST skin, heavy sweating, dilated pupils (wide), headache, nausea, dizziness, and vomiting. Body temperature will be near normal.
Get the victim out of the heat and into a cool place. Place in the shock position, lying on the back with feet raised. Remove or loosen clothing. Cool by fanning or applying cold packs or wet towels or sheets. If conscious, give water to drink every 15 minutes.
IMPORTANT: WHILE HEAT EXHAUSTION IS NOT A LIFE-THREATENING EMERGENCY LIKE HEAT STROKE, IT CAN PROGRESS TO HEAT STROKE IF LEFT UNTREATED!
• Heat Cramps
Heat cramps are muscular pain and spasms due to heavy exertion. They usually involve the abdominal muscles or legs. It is generally thought this condition is caused by loss of water and salt through sweating.
Get the victim to a cool place. If they can tolerate it, give a one-half glass of water every 15 minutes. Heat cramps can usually be avoided by increasing fluid intake when active in hot weather.
2.17 Cold Emergencies
Hypothermia: Signs & Symptoms
Signs and symptoms of this dangerous condition, which can become life-threatening, are: shivering, dizziness, numbness, confusion, weakness, impaired judgment, impaired vision and drowsiness.
Hypothermia victims pass through 5 stages, with each stage more serious and leading to death!
• Loss of Consciousness
• Decreasing Pulse and Breathing Rate
Seek professional help. Get victim out of the cold and into dry clothing. Warm the body SLOWLY! Give nothing to eat or drink unless the victim is FULLY CONSCIOUS!
If trained, monitor airway, breathing & circulation.Download