Mental health | NCLEX-RN | How does substance use develop into substance abuse
[Guide] When we talk about using materials And drug addiction, we have to remember that these are two different things, though they are Of course related.
And although most people use materials They will never develop a drug abuse problem, It’s true that anyone who develops The problem of using materials begins with a user.
Therefore, it is very important for us to understand exactly how the use of materials develops. The first theory I want to discuss Is the entrance model.
And this theory might be like you This means that certain materials are used as semen entry, That is, their use can lead to the use of More hazardous materials. That’s the way we have John And when John was a teenager, or maybe before he was a teenager, He started experimenting with alcohol and cigarettes.
And from there, maybe he starts smoking hashish. He started using marijuana. And in the end, he finishes using drugs like Heroin and cocaine So here, alcohol and cigarettes will be Entry led to marijuana use Which is itself an entry into the use of heavier drugs.
So, John’s early experience with less hazardous materials Led him to use more dangerous substances later. And the meaning of it all seems Because if you can prevent people, especially teens and pre-teens, experience with Smoking, drinking and using marijuana, Then they will never go to more difficult drugs.
And this is the basis of many anti-drug programs In the US which are targeted at teenagers before their teens. And there is some support for this idea First, the order of drug use I have described here It is quite typical.
People who use the materials usually make use of Alcohol and cigarettes before using marijuana. And it is also true that people who use Heavier materials, in fact, use alcohol, Cigarettes, and marijuana first. But there are some problems with this theory.
The first is that correlation does not indicate causality. Just because there are people with a tendency to follow a particular path to drug abuse It does not mean that one causes the other.
It could be that there is a third factor It’s more important. Perhaps each of the risk factors we mentioned earlier. So maybe some people use heroin and cocaine I find myself eventually using them even if they are There had been no alcohol or cigarettes before.
Second, it can actually be available. That despite alcohol and cigarettes Are illegal for minors, are available, Perhaps more available than illegal materials, Like heroin and cocaine So, maybe cigarettes and alcohol are used at first because it is easier for people to get them. And finally, only a very small percentage Of those who use alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, In the end, using other materials.
So it may not be accurate to say that marijuana Causes more severe drug use when it is only true for a very small number of cases.
Another way to think about how to use the material May progress to misuse of the material Is a theory that focuses on the continuum of drug use.
So instead of saying that one drug leads For other use, this theory states that Change in usage patterns Is what motivates someone to use and abuse So it can be in quantity change In using the material or availability of the material, or as results of the use of materials.
And this theory holds that there is no one Direct printing from the use of materials for substance abuse Instead, there are many twists and turns along the way.
So let’s talk about John again. And maybe John used cocaine once at a party, And in one scenario, it uses and then does not use again.
But in the second scenario, maybe he uses one time At this party, and perhaps he intends not to use again, But perhaps it turns out that one of his friends Bringing cocaine to the party a few years later, And he uses again.
And from that moment on he uses it every few years. Only in specific social situations only and only when other people bring the material. And we would define it as a non-use issue.
Okay, now let’s talk about a third scenario. And this is a kind of long story. So in this scenario, it uses the first party.
Then, just like in Scenario Two, he moved For non-problematic use. But suppose something changes. Maybe he finds someone willing to sell it For stable supply. So before that, he used only when someone else Brought cocaine to parties, and now he buys on his own.
Then there was a change in availability And a change in supply, which led John To use the material more often. And remember, as this happens, John probably has Lots of other changes in life as well.
Maybe he has a new job that requires a lot of energy, Like maybe he’s a bartender or a businessman, And he needs a lot of energy to work until late at night. So maybe instead of using social cocaine at parties, Now he starts using it for work purposes.
So this pattern of drug use is also changing. And because of all these things, including the fact Which he uses more often, maybe John moves From non-abuse of materials, which, if it continues in this pattern, Can lead to a state of dependency on materials.
So, in a situation where he is addicted to matter, And they will have withdrawal symptoms If he tries to stop. So this figure shows us the different routes that people can take in terms of using materials, And, how different patterns of use Maybe move someone from misuse.
But I really think that’s the most interesting part Of this theory is that it means that people can move back and forth along these paths. So maybe John begins to realize that his drug is being taken, He’s out of control, well, Is moving back to drug abuse for non-problematic use, So he decides he is not going to use cocaine Work more and he’ll just use it In social situations.
And maybe after a while, it stops using completely. Or maybe it just goes on with no problem. Or suppose John got into a car accident. And after that he moved to a treatment program, Then it is necessary to abstain.
And after a period of abstinence, maybe it starts to use again and again until he has a healthy fear, Maybe a heart attack, it’s possible or not Being associated with the use of cocaine, is not safe.
But this is a possible change in the effects of drug use Moves it back to abstinence. Thus, in accordance with all these different circumstances, All the different changes in life, Drug availability, the amount someone uses, Why do they use this stuff, even things like Whether they have no money or whether they have been imprisoned Or move to a new city, all these changes Patterns of drug use can also lead Increase or decrease in the amount of drug used, In accordance with these changes.
Another interesting thing you can notice In this theory by looking at this figure, He is the one who says that someone can not move From single-use directly to problematic use.
Instead, they should first go through the non-problematic use. So this theory is quite clear in its statement That addiction is a process. This is not something that happens immediately.
And another part is very important in this theory It reinforces that this wheel repeats itself Separately for each material. So maybe John tries cigarettes once and then Never uses them again, and maybe uses them Drink alcohol occasionally, but then stops when he reached middle age. And perhaps the use of cocaine, as we have said, Follows a more complicated path along with this figure.
So this is very different from the entry theory, Which holds that using one material can lead For use in another material because, in this model, Each material is considered separately. And because of that, it’s a continuum model It is summed up to be much more complicated Than the entry model. But because of this, there is additional complexity, This can be a more realistic way to look at how people move from misuse.