The Conjunction in English Grammar


The Conjunction in English Grammar

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The Conjunction

Conjunctions are the words we use to link or join two or

more sentences together or two words within the same

sentence.

Conjunctions are of three kinds:

Coordinating, Subordinating and Correlative.

Coordinating Conjunctions: Join two sentences that work at the same level of importance in our speech, both actions are equally important.  Or  Join two main clauses. They come between the clauses and are preceded by a comma.

These conjunctions are: and, but, still, so, only,

therefore, yet, nevertheless, for, however, either…or…,while, neither….Nor,

Coordinating Conjunctions: Join two sentences that work at the same level of importance in our speech,
both actions are equally important.  Or  Join two main clauses. They come between the clauses and are preceded by a comma.

 Compound Sentence: are sentences that work at the same level of importance in our speech,
both actions are equally important.

 Coordinating Clause: Are sentences that work at the same level of importance in our speech,
both actions are equally important.

Coordinating Conjunctions

  • For: reason, means because
  • And: connects 2 sentences with similar ideas (positive/ negative)
  • Nor: connects 2 negative sentences with inverted word order
  • But: connects 2 sentences with contrasting or opposite ideas
  • Or: connects 2 sentences that express alternatives or choices
  • Yet: surprise
  • So: connects a reason and a result

 The Conjunction in English Grammar

Example:      

We had a salad and an ice cream.

(In this example we are using the coordinating conjunction

‘and’ to join two Objects within the same sentence.)

We went to the swimming pool and had lunch there.

(In this example we are using the coordinating conjunction

‘and’ to join two different Sentences, ‘we went to the

swimming pool’ with ‘(we) had lunch there’.)

Example:      

Sudhir tried and succeeded.

Sapana is brilliant and Shashi has a pleasant personality.

We tried but did not succeed.

Did you go out or stay at home?

 

Coordinating Conjunctions

Addition:  My father loves kitchen gadgets, and he buys a new one every week.

Contrast: A few of the gadgets are useful, but most of them just take up space.

Result: We ran out of space for them in the kitchen, so he started to store them in the living room.

Choice: My mother asked my father to please stop buying gadgets, or she would throw them out.

Surprise: Of course, Dad came home the next week with three new ones, yet Mom wasn’t upset.


Reason: Maybe she realized that buying little gadgets is harmless, for none of them cost a lot of money.

Addition: (negative): After all, he doesn’t buy sports cars, nor does he bring home a new yacht every week.

Content connected by coordinating conjunctions must be parallel.

They must belong to the same grammatical category. (e.g. Adjective, Adverb, Noun phrase, Verb phrase, Infinitive or Gerund phrase).

The Italian film Life Is Beautiful made me both laugh and cry.

It contained not only comic but also tragic scenes.

Either my father or my mother will meet me at the airport.

Neither my father nor my mother will meet me at the airport.

 

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions: are used to join, or simply to

show any relation, between the idea or different ideas.

Notice the parallel structure in these clauses joined by

correlative conjunctions:

These conjunctions are: either…or, if…. then, neither….

nor, no sooner … than, both … and, scarcely… when, not

only … but also, rather … than whether … or

Examples:          

He led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of

his enthusiasm.

Whether she wins this race or loses, it doesn’t matter as

long as she does her best.

Congress has provided the means for both, regulating

pesticides and ordering their removal if dangerous.

 

 

Examples:          

both … and                   He is both intelligent and good-natured.

hardly …when    He had hardly begun to work, when he                          was called.

if …then               If that is true, then what happened is not                        surprising.

no sooner …than          No sooner had I reached the corner, than                        the bus came.

not only …but also She is not only clever, but also hard-                                     working.

rather …than       I would rather go swimming than go to                           the library.

scarcely …when Scarcely had we left home, when it                                  started to rain.

whether …or        Have you decided whether you will come                      or not?

Paired Coordinating Conjunctions:

Say something constructive.
Don’t say anything at all (either …or)

Indians pay income tax.
They are charged high sales taxes in some states. (not only…, but also)

He didn’t ask for permission.
He didn’t give me an explanation of his action. (neither…,nor)

The Conjunction in English Grammar

 

Using… Not either or Neither

Subject + modal + not + either
The teacher isn’t here, and the students aren’t either.
Neither + modal + subject
The teacher isn’t here, and neither are the students.

Using …Too or So

Subject + auxiliary + too
I can dance the Tango, and my husband can too
So + auxiliary + subject
I can dance the Tango, and so can my husband.


(not either) – I don’t have my book.
Claudia doesn’t have her book.
(too) – John has been to South America.
Karen has been to South America.
(so ) – My nephew lost his passport.
My sister lost her passport.
(Neither) – You haven’t done your homework.
I haven’t done my homework.

 

Subordinating Clause
The subordinate clause is called a dependent clause while the simple sentence is called the independent clause.

Subordinating Conjunctions:
They are: that, although, though, because of, while, since,
until, as, as if, as though, so that, when, lest, if, in order
that, unless, where, wherever and why and whether…..or.
However, a subordinate clause can sometimes come after
and sometimes before a main clause.

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