What is First Aid?

Floating objects in the eye, which can be visualized, may be flushed from the eye with water. If the object cannot be removed in this manner, the victim should seek medical attention.

NEVER ATTEMPT TO REMOVE OBJECTS EMBEDDED IN THE EYE!

First Aid care for these injuries consists of bandaging BOTH eyes and seeking professional care promptly! An inverted paper cup covered with a bandage is appropriate for serious eye injuries while the victim is transported to the hospital.

For chemical burns of the eye, wash the eye with copious amounts of water for 15 to 30 minutes. Then wrap a bandage around both eyes and seek professional help.
Eyes are delicate and sight is precious! Prompt professional attention to eye injuries is required to preserve sight!

2.8 Nose Injuries

Severe nosebleed can be most frightening. It can also lead to shock if enough blood is lost! Many cases of nosebleed can be controlled simply by having the victim sit down, pinch the nostrils shut and lean forward (to prevent blood from running into the throat).

Once the bleeding has been stopped, talking, walking and blowing the nose may disturb blood clots and allow the bleeding to resume. The victim should rest quietly until it appears the bleeding remains stopped.

If it is suspected that the victim has suffered head, neck or back injuries DO NOT attempt to control the blood flow as they may cause increased pressure on injured tissue. All uncontrolled nosebleeds require prompt medical attention!

2.9 Animal Bites

ANIMAL BITES CARRY A HIGH RISK OF INFECTION

AND REQUIRE PROFESSIONAL ATTENTION PROMPTLY!

Infection may develop hours, or days, after an animal bite. Signs and symptoms of infection are pain & tenderness at the wound site, redness, heat, swelling, pus at the wound site, red streaks in the skin around the wound and possible swollen glands closest to the wound.
First aid care for animal bites includes washing the wound well with soap and water, if there is no heavy bleeding. Then cover the wound and seek professional attention. A serious wound should be cleaned only by trained medical personnel.

2.10 Insect Bites

INSECT BITES AND STINGS CAN BE LIFE-THREATENING

TO PEOPLE WITH SEVERE ALLERGY TO THE INSECT’S VENOM!

Signs and symptoms of allergic reaction include pain, swelling of the throat, redness or discoloration at the site of the bite, itching, hives, decreased consciousness and difficult or noisy breathing.
First aid calls for being alert for signs of allergic reaction or shock and seeking medical attention as quickly as possible for these victims!

If a stinger remains in the victim, you may try to remove it carefully with a tweezers or by scraping with the edge of a credit card. Be careful not to squeeze the stinger, as this will inject more venom.
Once a stinger has been removed, the wound should be washed well with soap and water. Cold compresses will help relieve pain and swelling. The stung area should be kept lower than the heart to slow circulation of the venom.

REMEMBER, IN ALL CASES OF INSECT BITES, WATCH FOR SIGNS OF ALLERGIC REACTION AND IF THEY APPEAR, SEEK PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL ATTENTION WITHOUT DELAY!

2.11 Fractures, Sprains, Strains & Dislocations

Fractures, sprains, strains and dislocations may be hard for the layperson to tell apart. For this reason, first aid treatment of any of these conditions is handled as though the injury was a fracture.
Signs and symptoms of the above conditions may include a “grating” sensation of bones rubbing together, pain, tenderness, swelling, bruising and an inability to move the injured part.
First Aid for any of these conditions consists of:

• Control bleeding, if present.
• Care for shock.
• Splint affected area to prevent further movement, but do so only if possible without causing further pain to victim.
• Cold packs may help reduce pain and swelling.

Victims with traumatic injuries, such as those caused by automobile accidents, falls etc. should not be moved except by trained rescue workers. Head, neck and back injuries are serious and require special care for movement and transport of victims with these conditions. In exceptional circumstances, such as when a victim is at risk of further injury unless moved, the victim’s head and neck should be stabilized and the body moved with minimal flexing of the head, neck or spinal cord.
ALL VICTIMS WITH FRACTURES, DISLOCATIONS, SPRAINS AND STRAINS REQUIRE PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL ATTENTION.

2.12 Poisoning

Over a million cases of poisoning occur in the world each year, most involving young children.
PREVENTION of poisoning should be the concern of every parent with young children.
Substances likely to cause poisoning should be kept away from inquiring youngsters!
Since various poisons cause different symptoms, and because treatments vary depending upon the substance ingested, the first step in the event of poisoning is to call the local POISON CONTROL CENTER!

DO NOT WAIT FOR SYMPTOMS TO OCCUR!

IDENTIFY THE NATURE OF THE POISON AND RECEIVE SPECIFIC CARE INSTRUCTIONS FROM THE PROFESSIONAL STAFF AT THE CENTER!

All poisoning victims need to be monitored carefully for signs of shock or impaired consciousness.
Every household should keep ACTIVATED CHARCOAL & SYRUP OF IPECAC on hand for possible use in poisoning emergencies, however they should not be administered unless instructed by the Poison Control Center staff. Both of these items are readily available, without prescription, at any drug store.

2.13 Diabetic Emergencies

Sugar is required in the body for nourishment. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use the sugar. When the body does not produce enough Insulin, body cells do not get the needed nourishment and diabetes results.

People with this condition take Insulin to keep their diabetes under control.
Diabetics are subject to two very different types of emergencies:

Insulin Reaction (or Insulin Shock)

This condition occurs when there is TOO MUCH INSULIN in the body. This condition rapidly reduces the level of sugar in the blood and brain cells suffer.

Insulin reaction can be caused by taking too much medication, by failing to eat, by heavy exercise and by emotional factors.

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