What is First Aid?

VENUS bleeding is characterized by a steady flow and the blood is dark, almost maroon in shade. Venus bleeding is easier to control than Arterial bleeding.

CAPILLARY bleeding is usually slow, oozing in nature and this type of bleeding usually has a higher risk of infection than other types of bleeding.

FIRST AID FOR BLEEDING IS INTENDED TO:

• STOP THE BLEEDING
• PREVENT INFECTION
• PREVENT SHOCK

How to control bleeding

• Apply DIRECT PRESSURE on the wound. use a dressing, if available. if a dressing is not available, use a rag, towel, piece of clothing or your hand alone.

IMPORTANT:

ONCE PRESSURE IS APPLIED, KEEP IT IN PLACE. IF DRESSINGS BECOME SOAKED WITH BLOOD, APPLY NEW DRESSINGS OVER THE OLD DRESSINGS. THE LESS A BLEEDING WOUND IS DISTURBED, THE EASIER IT WILL BE TO STOP THE BLEEDING!

• If bleeding continues, and you do not suspect a fracture, ELEVATE the wound above the level of the heart and continue to apply direct pressure.

• If the bleeding still cannot be controlled, the next step is to apply PRESSURE AT A PRESSURE POINT. For wounds of the arms or hands, pressure points are located on the inside of the wrist (radial artery-where a pulse is checked) or on the inside of the upper arm (brachial artery). For wounds of the legs, the pressure point is at the crease in the groin (femoral artery). Steps 1 and 2 should be continued with use of the pressure points.

• The final step to control bleeding is to apply a PRESSURE BANDAGE over the wound. Note the distinction between a dressing and a bandage. A dressing may be a gauze square applied directly to a wound, while a bandage, such as roll gauze, is used to hold a dressing in place. Pressure should be used in applying the bandage. After the bandage is in place, it is important to check the pulse to make sure circulation is not interrupted. When faced with the need to control major bleeding, it is not important that the dressings you will use are sterile! use whatever you have at hand and work fast!

A SLOW PULSE RATE, OR BLUISH FINGERTIPS OR TOES,

SIGNAL A BANDAGE MAY BE IMPEDING CIRCULATION.

Signs and symptoms of INTERNAL BLEEDING are:

• Bruised, swollen, tender or rigid abdomen
• Bruises on chest or signs of fractured ribs
• Blood in vomit
• Wounds that have penetrated the chest or abdomen
• Bleeding from the rectum or vagina
• Abnormal pulse and difficulty breathing
• Cool, moist skin.

First aid in the field for internal bleeding is limited. If the injury appears to be a simple bruise, apply cold packs to slow bleeding, relieve pain and reduce swelling. If you suspect more severe internal bleeding, carefully monitor the patient and be prepared to administer CPR if required (and you are trained to do so). You should also reassure the victim, control external bleeding, care for shock (covered in next section), loosen tight-fitting clothing and place victim on side so fluids can drain from the mouth

2.5 Shock

SHOCK is common with many injuries, regardless of their severity. The first hour after an injury is most important because it is during this period that symptoms of shock appear.

IF SHOCK IS NOT TREATED, IT CAN PROGRESS TO CAUSE DEATH!

ANY TYPE OF INJURY CAN CAUSE SHOCK.

Shock is failure of the cardiovascular system to keep adequate blood circulating to the vital organs of the body, namely the heart, lungs and brain.

• SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SHOCK INCLUDE: confused behavior, very fast or very slow pulse rate, very fast or very slow breathing, trembling and weakness in the arms or legs, cool and moist skin, pale or bluish skin, lips and fingernails and enlarged pupils.

Treatment for Shock

A good rule to follow is to anticipate that shock will follow an injury and to take measures to prevent it before it happens.
• Putting a victim in a lying-down position improves circulation.
• If the victim is not suspected of having head or neck injuries, or leg fractures, elevate the legs.
• If you suspect head or neck injuries, keep the victim lying flat. If the victim vomits, turn on their side.
• If victim is experiencing trouble breathing, place them in a semi-reclining position. Maintain the victim’s body temperature, but do not overheat.

2.6 Burns

The severity of a burn depends upon its size, depth and location. Burns are most severe when located on the face, neck, hands, feet and genitals. Also, when they are spread over large parts of the body or when they are combined with other injuries.

Burns result in pain, infection and shock. They are most serious when the victims are very young or very old.

• FIRST DEGREE burns are the least severe. They are characterized by redness or discoloration, mild swelling and pain. Overexposure to the sun is a common cause of first degree burns.
• SECOND DEGREE burns are more serious. They are deeper than first degree burns, look red or mottled and have blisters. They may also involve loss of fluids through the damaged skin. Second-degree burns are usually the most painful because nerve ending are usually intact, despite severe tissue damage.
• THIRD DEGREE burns are the deepest. They may look white or charred, extend through all skin layers. Victims of third degree burns may have severe pain — or no pain at all — if the nerve endings are destroyed.

First Aid for Burns

• FIRST DEGREE: Flush with cool running water, Apply moist dressings and bandage loosely.
• SECOND DEGREE: Apply dry dressings and bandage loosely Do not use water as it may increase risk of shock.
• THIRD DEGREE: Same treatment as second degree.

ALL VICTIMS OF SERIOUS BURNS

SHOULD SEEK PROFESSIONAL HELP QUICKLY!

Burns may also be caused by CHEMICALS. In these cases, it is important to remove clothing on which chemicals have spilled and flush the affected area with copious amounts of water for 15 to 30 minutes.

2.7 Eye Injuries

Be extremely careful and gentle when treating eye injuries.

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