Change Management And Organization Development
1.1 All organisations are made up of people and human behaviour, though unpredictable can be understood more precisely with the knowledge of modern psychotherapy. The people come together and interact with one another in order to solve problems, collect information, discuss progress, give instructions and set goals. People also come together for the pleasure of company of each others. Most of the time of executives/ managers when they are on the job, is spent of instruction to the employees of their own concern or public if their department has public dealings.
1.2 Transactional analysis will enable you to understand your subordinate’s moods and feelings while exchanging the communication. Manipulation of the transaction will enable you to control the behaviour of your subordinates. The most important of all is that you can analyze your own behaviour with the help of this technique.
Meaning of Transactional Analysis
2.1 Throughout the history, one impression of human nature has been consistent; that man has multiple nature. It is often said that man has a dual nature. Man can aspire and achieve goodness; which is evident from long human history. Goodness can be in the form of wisdom, justice and love according to great thinkers of the world. The goodness or good virtues have always been at war with evils, higher nature with lower nature and so on. In modern age, transactional analysis is used for the most easily understandable technique of analyzing human behaviour.
2.2 Any inter-personnel communication between two persons is termed as transaction. In the inter personal communication there is exchange of words and ideas. What one person speaks to the other, is known as “Transactional Response”. Behavioural stimulus can take the shape of speech, posture, gesture of action and when another person reacts to this stimulus, it is termed as “Transactional Response”. Behavioural response when received in response to a stimulus; completes a transaction. But the response itself may serve as a stimulus for the initiation of interaction and may evoke another response. Thus in this manner human interaction although appearing as a continuous affair can easily be seen as series of such stimulus-response transactions. When two parties are involved, there is social transaction through interaction of the people. The study of these social transactions between people is called transactional analysis. In other words transactional analysis is basically concerned with analysis of behavioural dynamic of the personalities.
Ego States and their Causation
3.1 Human behaviour is multifarious. In a human being, there appear to be many small ‘Selves’ playing different roles at different time and in different roles in different situations. It is this fact, perhaps which makes human behaviour unpredictable, inconsistent, and irrational. Reaction to a given set of conditions depends on the momentary ‘ state of mind’. For example, a JTO is asked to stay beyond his working hours to complete some statement. The JTO had an appointment with one of his relatives for dinner immediately after working hours and, hence, his reaction in this condition may vary. He jumps, hearing this and shouts “You are unfair, I cannot stay and spoil my plan because of your whim. I am not going to stay as I have, already, an appointment with my relative”. “You may ask some one else to complete the statement, or if you agree, I can come early tomorrow morning to complete the work in time’.
These three statements of the JTO show three distinct levels of his mood. The pattern of behaviour exhibited by the JTO through his actions and responses is the casting of his mood. Where did this mood come from? It is, in fact, the product of an ‘ego-state’ of a person. It is the inherent ego-state of a person which leads the mental and physical behaviour of a person at any moment.
3.2 An EGO-STATE is defined as a consistent pattern of thinking, feeling and emotions which is source for human behaviour. There are three ego-states in every person. Each behavioural stimulus or response originates from one of these three distinct states.
3.3 In the transactional analysis, (TA), these three states are written with capital P, A and C. Thus each of us, has a parent, adult and child within us and may react from any one of these personality states at a given time. During a transaction one can change instantly from one state to another without a warning.
3.4 When one person converses with a second person, the first person is in a distinct ‘ego-state’ and can direct his or her message to any one of the three ‘ego-states’ but the second person may or may not respond from the same ego state from which the first person would have expected of him. Consequently the first step in transactional analysis is to recognize ‘ego-state’ and to know what their typical features are and where do they come from and acquire skill to distinguish one from the other when one sees them in operation.
3.5 Parent (P) Ego State:
A parent ego state consists of that body of data, recorded and stored in the brain, which comes from one’s observations about the way his/her parents and elders behaved. It deals with opinion, values, instructions and prescriptions, which a child has received from his/her elders. What the child observes in early stage of his life is recorded in his mind like permanent tape record. According to western thought, up to early five year period of life of a child is very important period for building of this ‘ego state’. According to Hindu concept of Sanskar, this period extends up to 12 years. Every thing the child has seen his parents doing and every thing he heard them saying, is recorded in his/her parent store. The data in ‘Parent’ was taken in and recorded straight without editing. The little child due to his dependency and his inability to construct meanings with words made it impossible for him to modify, correct or explain. Therefore, if the parents were hostile and consistently fighting each other, a fight was recorded with terror produced by seeing the parents fighting on whom the child was dependent. The child was exposed nearly every possible attitude and admonition of his parents up to five years of his life and hence forth further parental communications are essentially a reinforcement, of what has already been recorded.