NCLEX PN Practice Questions | NCLEX PN Quiz

NCLEX PN Practice Questions | Practical Nurse Quiz

This educational article contains some multiple-choice questions of NCLEX PN i.e. practical Nurse test. These questions are very useful for those candidates who want to take NCLEX PN test.

1 >>The primary cause of anemia in a client with chronic renal failure is: ?

  • (A) Poor iron absorption
  • (B) Destruction of red blood cells
  • (C) Lack of intrinsic factor
  • (D) Insufficient erythropoietin

2 >>Which of the following nursing interventions has the highest priority for the client scheduled for an intravenous pyelogram? ?

  • (A) Providing the client with a favorite meal for dinner
  • (B) Asking if the client has allergies to shellfish
  • (C) Encouraging fluids the evening before the test
  • (D) Telling the client what to expect during the test

3 >>The doctor has prescribed aspirin 325mg daily for a client with transient ischemic attacks. The nurse knows that aspirin was prescribed to: ?

  • (A) Prevent headaches
  • (B) Boost coagulation
  • (C) Prevent cerebral anoxia
  • (D) Keep platelets from clumping together

4 >>A client with tuberculosis who has been receiving combined therapy with INH and Rifampin asks the nurse how long he will have to take medication. The nurse should tell the client that: ?

  • (A) Medication is rarely needed after 2 weeks.
  • (B) He will need to take medication the rest of his life.
  • (C) The course of combined therapy is usually 6 months.
  • (D) He will be re-evaluated in 1 month to see if further medication is needed.

5 >>Which development milestone puts the 4-month-old infant at greatest risk for injury? ?

  • (A) Switching objects from one hand to another
  • (B) Crawling
  • (C) Standing
  • (D) Rolling over

6 >>A client taking Dilantin (phenytoin) for tonic-clonic seizures is preparing for discharge. Which information should be included in the client’s discharge care plan? ?

  • (A) The medication can cause dental staining.
  • (B) The client will need to avoid a high-carbohydrate diet.
  • (C) The client will need a regularly scheduled CBC.
  • (D) The medication can cause problems with drowsiness.

 

 

7 >>Assessment of a newborn male reveals that the infant has hypospadias. The nurse knows that: ?

  • (A) The infant should not be circumcised.
  • (B) Surgical correction will be done by 6 months of age.
  • (C) Surgical correction is delayed until 6 years of age.
  • (D) The infant should be circumcised to facilitate voiding.

8 >>The nurse is providing dietary teaching for a client with elevated cholesterol levels. Which cooking oil is not suggested for the client on a low-cholesterol diet? ?

  • (A) Safflower oil
  • (B) Sunflower oil
  • (C) Coconut oil
  • (D) Canola oil

9 >>The nurse is caring for a client with stage III Alzheimer’s disease. A characteristic of this stage is: ?

  • (A) Memory loss
  • (B) Failing to recognize familiar objects
  • (C) Wandering at night
  • (D) Failing to communicate

10 >>The doctor has prescribed Cortone (cortisone) for a client with systemic lupus erythematosis. Which instruction should be given to the client? ?

  • (A) Take the medication 30 minutes before eating.
  • (B) Report changes in appetite and weight.
  • (C) Wear sunglasses to prevent cataracts.
  • (D) Schedule a time to take the influenza vaccine.

11 >>The nurse is caring for a client with an above-the-knee amputation (AKA). To prevent contractures, the nurse should: ?

  • (A) Place the client in a prone position 15-30 minutes twice a day
  • (B) Keep the foot of the bed elevated on shock blocks
  • (C) Place trochanter rolls on either side of the affected leg
  • (D) Keep the client’s leg elevated on two pillows

12 >>The mother of a 6-month-old asks when her child will have all his baby teeth. The nurse knows that most children have all their primary teeth by age: ?

  • (A) 12 months
  • (B) 18 months
  • (C) 24 months
  • (D) 30 months

13 >>While caring for a client with cervical cancer, the nurse notes that the radioactive implant is lying in the bed. The nurse should: ?

  • (A) Place the implant in a biohazard bag and return it to the lab
  • (B) Give the client a pair of gloves and ask her to reinsert the implant
  • (C) Use tongs to pick up the implant and return it to a lead-lined container
  • (D) Discard the implant in the commode and double-flush

14 >>The nurse is preparing to discharge a client following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The nurse should: ?

  • (A) Tell the client to avoid a tub bath for 5 to 7 days
  • (B) Tell the client to expect clay-colored stools
  • (C) Tell the client that she can expect lower abdominal pain for the next week
  • (D) Tell the client that she can resume a regular diet immediately

15 >>A high school student returns to school following a 3-week absence due to mononucleosis. The school nurse knows it will be important for the client: ?

  • (A) To drink additional fluids throughout the day
  • (B) To avoid contact sports for 1-2 months
  • (C) To have a snack twice a day to prevent hypoglycemia
  • (D) To continue antibiotic therapy for 6 months

16 >>A 6-year-old with cystic fibrosis has an order for pancreatic replacement. The nurse knows that the medication will be given: ?

  • (A) At bedtime
  • (B) With meals and snacks
  • (C) Twice daily
  • (D) Daily in the morning

17 >>The doctor has prescribed a diet high in vitamin B12 for a client with pernicious anemia. Which foods are highest in B12? ?

  • (A) Meat, eggs, dairy products
  • (B) Peanut butter, raisins, molasses
  • (C) Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage
  • (D) Shrimp, legumes, bran cereals

18 >>A client with hypertension has begun an aerobic exercise program. The nurse should tell the client that the recommended exercise regimen should begin slowly and build up to: ?

  • (A) 20-30 minutes three times a week
  • (B) 45 minutes two times a week
  • (C) 1 hour four times a week
  • (D) 1 hour two times a week

19 >>A client with breast cancer is returned to the room following a right total mastectomy. The nurse should: ?

  • (A) Elevate the client’s right arm on pillows
  • (B) Place the client’s right arm in a dependent sling
  • (C) Keep the client’s right arm on the bed beside her
  • (D) Place the client’s right arm across her body

20 >>A neurological consult has been ordered for a pediatric client with suspected absence seizures. The client with absence seizures can be expected to have: ?

  • (A) Short, abrupt muscle contraction
  • (B) Quick, bilateral severe jerking movements
  • (C) Abrupt loss of muscle tone
  • (D) A brief lapse in consciousness

Tutorial for answering NCLEX and nursing style questions

Tutorial for answering NCLEX and nursing style questions

Hello and welcome to your very own Tutorial for answering NCLEX and nursing style questions.

In this tutorial, we will be going over test-taking strategies including the different types of questions the ingredients of a question strategic words positive and negative event queries choosing the correct answer and a process of elimination let’s get started multiple-choice is the most common type of question seen on nursing examinations.

The questions provide you with data about a patient situation and give a selection of four or more options in many cases more than one option may be right but it is your job to identify the one that is the most correct the following is an example of a multiple-choice question the patient is a 55 year old male diagnosed with advanced heart disease which of the following lifestyle factors is the probable cause of his cardiac problems a bi-weekly participation in outdoor softball be consuming approximately two alcoholic beverages a week see a history of smoking a half package of cigarettes daily or D consuming a vegetarian diet fill-in-the-blank questions are questions that may ask you to calculate a medication dosage IV rate intake and output

balance or it may ask you to answer other patient care questions using one-worded answers fill in the blank questions are an example of alternative format questions a sample fill in the blank question is as follows doctor has ordered 500 milligrams of acetaminophen for a patient postoperatively the tablets are available in 250 milligrams the nurse will therefore administer blank tablets with select all that apply questions you’ll be asked to choose all of the options applicable to the patient situation they appear very similar to traditional multiple-choice questions so it is always important to read the question carefully before answering generally no partial credit is given if only some of the correct choices were selected with select all that apply questions it is important to try your best to sort the answers into true and false statements then select only the true statements for your final answer an example of select all that apply is a nine-year-old patient is living in a long-term care facility and is complaining that her body doesn’t work the way it used

to which of the following changes are normal with aging select all that apply diminished visual acuity stiffened joints increased infections and hearing loss a figure question will contain a picture or graphic and you will be asked to answer the question based on the picture the questions could contain a chart table figure or illustration you may be asked to highlight something on the picture or simply make an evaluation of the information provided by the picture or figure in this example the student is being asked to evaluate the reading on an ECG and her according responds a client who experienced a myocardial infarction is on the cardiac unit with cardiac telemetry the nurse notes the sudden onset of the following cardiac rhythm what is the nurses immediate action a take the clients blood pressure be in a shaped CPR C uses nitrous payor D continues to monitor the client drag and drop questions use technology to allow the student to physically drag a term to its according to correctly answer these questions will be frequently related to prioritization but also be related to definition questions

in this example the nurse is studying positioning the patient to match the position name to the definitions pane semi Fowler’s lithotomy ordered response questions will ask the student to use a computer mouse or matching numbers to letters to order the answers by priority information will be present in the question and you must determine which nursing actions should be taken first second third and so on when faced with prioritizing questions remember to use the guidelines for prioritizing here is an example the emergency department nurse arrives on-shift with four patients in his care place the following patient diagnosis in order of highest priority to least priority a broken wrist B chest pains C asthma attack D nausea guidelines for prioritizing refer to the ABCs of

Nursing and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs the ABCs stand for airway breathing and circulation when selecting an answer or determining the order of priority of actions always select the priority action based on the ABCs airway is the first priority in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory physiological needs such as oxygen food water and shelter are always the priority, therefore, you should consider such needs first in selecting an option or determining the order of

priority of a set of actions there are three ingredients of a question the event provides you with the information about the patient or clinical situation that is necessary to answer the question the event query asks something specific about the content of the event and the answer is all of the options provided with the question in the following example the event is the nurses caring for a client with terminal cancer the event query or question is the nurse should plan for which factor when planning opioid pain management the possible answers are an all pain is real

be opioids are highly addictive see opioids can cause cardiac issues or D around the clock dosing provides better relief than as-needed dosing again the event query asks something specific about the content of the event a positive event query uses strategic words that ask you to choose an answer or answers that are correct example which of the following statements made by the patient indicates their understanding of the side-effects of the prescribed medication a negative event query uses strategic words that ask you to choose an answer that is incorrect event or statement example which of the following statements made by the patient indicates

a need for further teaching regarding the side-effects of the prescribing medication your turn identified the event query positive or negative and the answers of the following question then select the correct answer strategic words to focus on your attention to one critical point to consider when answering the question if you know what to look for some strategic words may indicate that all of the answers are correct and prioritization will be needed to select the true answer common strategic words are as follows here are some examples of strategic

How does substance use develop into substance abuse | Mental health | NCLEX-RN

Mental health | NCLEX-RN | How does substance use develop into substance abuse

[Guide] When we talk about using materials And drug addiction, we have to remember that these are two different things, though they are Of course related.

And although most people use materials They will never develop a drug abuse problem, It’s true that anyone who develops The problem of using materials begins with a user.

Therefore, it is very important for us to understand exactly how the use of materials develops. The first theory I want to discuss Is the entrance model.

And this theory might be like you This means that certain materials are used as semen entry, That is, their use can lead to the use of More hazardous materials. That’s the way we have John And when John was a teenager, or maybe before he was a teenager, He started experimenting with alcohol and cigarettes.

And from there, maybe he starts smoking hashish. He started using marijuana. And in the end, he finishes using drugs like Heroin and cocaine So here, alcohol and cigarettes will be Entry led to marijuana use Which is itself an entry into the use of heavier drugs.

So, John’s early experience with less hazardous materials Led him to use more dangerous substances later. And the meaning of it all seems Because if you can prevent people, especially teens and pre-teens, experience with Smoking, drinking and using marijuana, Then they will never go to more difficult drugs.

And this is the basis of many anti-drug programs In the US which are targeted at teenagers before their teens. And there is some support for this idea First, the order of drug use I have described here It is quite typical.

People who use the materials usually make use of Alcohol and cigarettes before using marijuana. And it is also true that people who use Heavier materials, in fact, use alcohol, Cigarettes, and marijuana first. But there are some problems with this theory.

The first is that correlation does not indicate causality. Just because there are people with a tendency to follow a particular path to drug abuse It does not mean that one causes the other.

It could be that there is a third factor It’s more important. Perhaps each of the risk factors we mentioned earlier. So maybe some people use heroin and cocaine I find myself eventually using them even if they are There had been no alcohol or cigarettes before.

Second, it can actually be available. That despite alcohol and cigarettes Are illegal for minors, are available, Perhaps more available than illegal materials, Like heroin and cocaine So, maybe cigarettes and alcohol are used at first because it is easier for people to get them. And finally, only a very small percentage Of those who use alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, In the end, using other materials.

So it may not be accurate to say that marijuana Causes more severe drug use when it is only true for a very small number of cases.

 

Another way to think about how to use the material May progress to misuse of the material Is a theory that focuses on the continuum of drug use.

So instead of saying that one drug leads For other use, this theory states that Change in usage patterns Is what motivates someone to use and abuse So it can be in quantity change In using the material or availability of the material, or as results of the use of materials.

And this theory holds that there is no one Direct printing from the use of materials for substance abuse Instead, there are many twists and turns along the way.

So let’s talk about John again. And maybe John used cocaine once at a party, And in one scenario, it uses and then does not use again.

But in the second scenario, maybe he uses one time At this party, and perhaps he intends not to use again, But perhaps it turns out that one of his friends Bringing cocaine to the party a few years later, And he uses again.

And from that moment on he uses it every few years. Only in specific social situations only and only when other people bring the material. And we would define it as a non-use issue.

Okay, now let’s talk about a third scenario. And this is a kind of long story. So in this scenario, it uses the first party.

Then, just like in Scenario Two, he moved For non-problematic use. But suppose something changes. Maybe he finds someone willing to sell it For stable supply. So before that, he used only when someone else Brought cocaine to parties, and now he buys on his own.

Then there was a change in availability And a change in supply, which led John To use the material more often. And remember, as this happens, John probably has Lots of other changes in life as well.

Maybe he has a new job that requires a lot of energy, Like maybe he’s a bartender or a businessman, And he needs a lot of energy to work until late at night. So maybe instead of using social cocaine at parties, Now he starts using it for work purposes.

So this pattern of drug use is also changing. And because of all these things, including the fact Which he uses more often, maybe John moves From non-abuse of materials, which, if it continues in this pattern, Can lead to a state of dependency on materials.

So, in a situation where he is addicted to matter, And they will have withdrawal symptoms If he tries to stop. So this figure shows us the different routes that people can take in terms of using materials, And, how different patterns of use Maybe move someone from misuse.

But I really think that’s the most interesting part Of this theory is that it means that people can move back and forth along these paths. So maybe John begins to realize that his drug is being taken, He’s out of control, well, Is moving back to drug abuse for non-problematic use, So he decides he is not going to use cocaine Work more and he’ll just use it In social situations.

NCLEX Test Day Vlog | I PASSED!!

NCLEX Test Day Vlog | I PASSED!!

So I’m taking my NCLEX today in a little bit under two hours actually I’m just sort of here Trying to avoid the inevitable Like I’m so scared At the same time I kind of feel like I already know everything I’m gonna know you know I’ve spent the last four or five-ish years studying and preparing for this test.

Technically. I feel weirdly confident like I’m not very worried but I do have this habit of being like super chill Right before a very stressful event.

Just being super chill being like, what are you guys doing freaking out like everything’s gonna be fine everything falls into its place accordingly like things happen for a reason and like you’re good, but then the second I get to the to the moment like I’m just like HELP So I’m expecting that to happen, but for right now I’m just enjoying the peace of mind and Yeah I should probably start making my way out though So, yeah Okay, I’m here Okay true to form I wanted to get here an hour early so I could study I Well, actually I didn’t do too bad.

I got here 45 minutes early. Um, I picked up some snacks on the way you know just the essentials I found these. I don’t know if you guys remember these the now and later ones. Oh, wait I don’t think this is what I thought it was Nevermind But okay, so I’m here I’m not sure what to expect.

I didn’t want to watch too many videos about it. Oof dat hair tho I didn’t want to watch too many videos about like the process of like walking through those doors and everything that lies before it I’m still not nervous It’s very worrisome at this point.

I feel like nervousness would be good.

It would motivate me, but Just it’s not happening I don’t have any angst I’m just sort of here you guys ever get to a point that? You’ve been kind of like looking forward to for so long as to whether it’s graduation or a wedding or a birthday.

I don’t know and once you’re there, it just doesn’t feel real. That’s exactly where I’m at right now. Anyway, so I think I’m gonna start heading in if Nothing else just to be waiting indoors instead of out here wasting my car gas with the AC on So I’ll see you on the flip side.

Don’t make me go Okay I have no idea how that went. Um I am a little- I’m a lot a bit worried um, I promised myself I wouldn’t try to find out I wouldn’t try using whatever tricks the Pearson trick that everybody talks about and that I wouldn’t try looking On Florida like Board of Nursing or whatever um but I’m gonna Yep, um I don’t even want to go home because I don’t want my family asking me how it went because I have no effing clue Okay, that’s that’s where I’m at right now.

I’m freaking out. Maybe I should be a little bit calm or just for your sake Um, you’ll do great But yeah, okay talking about its kind of calming me down I apologize for my previous behavior.

I still don’t know how I feel about it. Um, I took less than an hour Which is nerve-wracking in and of itself I could literally feel the test Targeting my weakness and farm there Were drugs on that test that they were asking me about that.

I would not even Be able to tell you if I had my textbook in front of me. I feel like I got a lot of select all that apply questions A lot.

So, I don’t really know what I’m gonna do right now, I don’t want to go home Maybe I’ll just run some errands I think going to the beach might be a good idea for me right now We’ll see Hey, you know what’s up! Your girl passed Your girl passed! Yo guys I passed Florida is really good about getting results out very, very quick I took my test at 3 p.M. And woke up Probably saw the results by 9:00 a.M.

the next morning Wow, that was the most gut-wrenching Several hours though. I could not fall asleep for the life of me. I was just worrying all day.

I ended up- my lovely friend of mine who was kind enough to take my mind off of things and convinced me to play for a night with her until like 4:00 a.M The only reason we stopped is that they had an update.

I’m not very good.

Just FYI, but that’s what happened.

I fell asleep Maybe at 4:30 I woke up at around 8, 8:30 Just laying in bed Knowing that the results were already posted but not having the cojones, you know To go and check for myself.

I ended up looking on my phone and it was that same friend of mine from Fortnight that had snap chatted me letting me know that I’d passed so that was awesome I checked the Florida Board of Nursing website and there my name was saying clear active passed license number and all I’m gonna I always wanted my first tattoo to be very spontaneous sorta like on a Wednesday at a place that sells tacos and also does tattoos just decides to get one, but I really think if I land an awesome job sometime around then I’m gonna get my RN license tattooed on me.

I think I want it to be spontaneous, but I’m pretty set.

I think that’s gonna be a really good first tattoo for me so now I’m headed over to mama bear’s and That’s about it.

This was my NCLEX day journey I passed.

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Diabetes Complications | NCLEX RN Review

Diabetes Complications | NCLEX RN Review

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) that results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both, and affects multiple systems of the body. Uncontrolled diabetes can cause metabolic imbalance leading to acute complications, requiring immediate medical attention.

Ongoing hyperglycemia will then develop into chronic complications. Let’s start by looking at the acute complications that require immediate medical intervention. Hypoglycemia, or a blood glucose level of less than 60 mg/dL, is a potential complication of insulin therapy or oral hypoglycemic agents.

It can also be caused by skipping a meal, inconsistent carbohydrate intake, over-exercising, or alcohol consumption. Common signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia may be adrenergic (caused by activation of the sympathetic nervous system) or neuroglycopenic(which is caused by depression of central nervous system acts as the brain receives an insufficient supply of glucose).

Adrenergic symptoms usually result from a rapid drop in glucose and occur first, including being pale, sweaty, having tachycardia, palpitations, nervousness, irritability, feeling cold, weak, trembling, and hungry. The particular signs and symptoms vary depending on the blood glucose level, how fast the glucose level dropped, and the duration of hypoglycemia.

When hypoglycemia is slow-developing, as with long-acting insulin or with oral hypoglycemic agents, the central nervous system signs and symptoms predominate. Those signs include headache, mental confusion, numbness around the mouth, incoherent speech, double vision, fatigue, emotional lability, convulsions, and coma.

If a rapid drop in blood sugar occurs and is allowed to persist, both the sympathetic and central nervous system signs usually occur. The diabetic patient should be educated about recognizing signs of hypoglycemia and how to treat it.

As long as the patient is conscious, they should self-treat with 15 g of quick-acting carbohydrates, such as 4 oz of juice (no added sugar), 3-4 glucose tablets, or 3 hard candies. Recheck the fingerstick blood glucose in 15minutes and if it remains below 60, the patient should self-treat again.

In an unconscious patient, never try to give oral glucose. In the hospital setting, one ampule of 50%dextrose is given IV push. In the outpatient setting a friend or family member can inject 1mg of glucagon subcutaneously, which causes the liver to release its glycogen stores.

The patient will usually regain consciousness within 10-20 minutes, and should then eat a snack of 45g carbohydrates to aid in replacing glycogen stores. Patients are often nauseated after receiving glucagon and may vomit.

When hypoglycemia is severe, seizures may also occur. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is another serious acute complication when excess blood acids, called ketones, build up in the body. Ketones are formed when the body burns fat for fuel instead of glucose.

This can occur when there is not enough insulin in the body to process sugars. DKA is triggered by illness or not taking insulin. The progressive hyperglycemia causes glucose to spill out into the urine, resulting in water and electrolyte losses, causing dehydration and an increase in thirst. The lack of insulin and the corresponding elevation of glucagon leads to increased release of glucose by the liver as well as ketone bodies, which are acidic and must be cleared from the circulation.

DKA can occur in patients with type 1 or type2 diabetes, but it’s rare with type 2. The risk for DKA is increased with type 1 diabetes, under age 19, stress, physical or emotional trauma, high fever, heart attack, stroke, smoking, or drugs/alcohol.

Signs and symptoms of DKA include high blood sugar levels, high levels of ketones in urine, fruity-smelling breath, flushed face, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, rapid deep gasping breaths, frequent urination, extreme thirst, dry mouth and skin, weakness, confusion, and loss of consciousness.

If left untreated, DKA can lead to coma or death. Treatment involves rehydration with IV fluids, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement. Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome(HHNS) has some similarities to DKA but is an acute complication of type 2 diabetes.

The differences include profound dehydration, with the fluid deficit as high as 8-9 liters. Blood sugar levels are higher, with serum glucose levels in the range of 600 to 2000.

Ketosis is absent because patients with type2 diabetes have insulin secretion to prevent ketosis. The kidneys try to get rid of the extra blood sugar by putting more glucose into the urine, which increases urination and loss of body fluids, causing dehydration.

Dehydration makes the blood thicker and the blood sugar level is too high for the kidneys to be able to fix. This also causes an imbalance of minerals in the blood, especially sodium and potassium.

This imbalance of fluids, glucose, and minerals in the body can lead to severe problems, such as brain swelling, abnormal heart rhythms, seizures, coma, or organ failure. Without rapid treatment, HHNS can cause death.

Primary treatment involves IV rehydration, which resolves the hyperglycemia, so IV insulin is usually not needed. Ok, now let’s look at the chronic complications of diabetes, that develop from ongoing hyperglycemia.

They are classified as microvascular or macrovascular. These complications are a result of the length and degree of hyperglycemia.

Microvascular complications affect the smaller blood vessels, such as the eyes (leading to diabetic retinopathy), kidneys (leading to diabetic nephropathy), and nerves (leading to neuropathy).

The effects of high blood glucose, as well as high blood pressure, can damage eye blood vessels, causing retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma.

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new blindness among adults 20 to 74 years old in the United States. High blood pressure also accelerates the development and progression of retinopathy.

Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the US, with 20% of all diabetic patients having nephropathy. Excess blood glucose overworks the kidneys and high blood pressure damages the small blood vessels.

Microscopic amounts of albumin in the urine the earliest lab abnormality, which may then progress to albuminuria (clinical proteinuria). Aggressive blood pressure control lessens the albuminuria, decreases the rate of deterioration of the kidneys, and improves survival.

Diabetic neuropathy affects 60-70% of diabetic patients and involves damage to nerves in the peripheral nervous system. The most common symptoms involve numbness in the legs or feet; but depending on the nerves affected, it can also cause shooting pains; problems with the digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels, and the heart.

Why does sweating cool you down? | NCLEX-RN

Why does sweating cool you down? | NCLEX-RN

Why sweating cools you? This is an excellent question for Baron, And to answer her, let’s do a close-up on a drop of sweat And sweat is mainly water, so when we do close-ups, and we get very close, Even more than I did here.

When we get very close, we’ll start seeing mostly these water molecules.

And water molecules, just to be a bit more accurate, I painted the oxygen in blue, and I painted the oxygen-related hydrogen in white. We all know that sometimes water is treated as H2.

It’s because of the H2O pair. So each of these is H2O molecules or a water molecule. What I’ve painted here, and those molecules of your skin are very simple.

But just for us to have simple, these are your skin molecules.

Really, the parts of the skin cells.

Not even the skin cells themselves, These are the molecules from which skin cells are composed. And right here, these are molecules of sweat, or they are actually simply molecules of water.

So the question, why sweat cools you, can be rephrased as Why water on the surface of the skin, really cool you? And to answer that, or to think about this question, We need to think about what it means to have a temperature, or what it is actually temperature.

Temperature, what we perceive as temperature, is simply the displacement of molecules or something. So high temperature means they move more. Then the higher the temperature they move more, and the lower the temperature they move less.

And they can move in different ways, It may be that they really move from place to place. They can vibrate, they can move around somewhere. And on average, the more traffic there is, which is usually referred to as kinetic energy, Of these molecules have an average, the higher the temperature will be.

Now, how come these waters here cool the skin? Well, first, why does the skin get hot? Because the muscles do a lot of work, they release heat. This heat goes to the skin. But how come this water here helps? Well, the skin has some kind of temperature, some kind of kinetic energy, or traffic energy.

But when you say that, it does not mean that all these molecules have exactly the same movement. This temperature is the average traffic. Some of these moves at a higher rate.

Or vibrate at a higher rate, or rotate at a higher rate And some do it at a slower pace. But when they move, they are going to collide with these water molecules and make them move. They’ll probably move a little earlier, too, But the warmer it is, the more energy there is, the more they collide with these molecules.

So let’s say she crashes here, and then she’ll crash into there, And this energy, this moving energy, or this kinetic energy, Well, part of it will be transferred, or you could say even part of that temperature, Part of this heat will be transferred to these water molecules. But the important thing to remember is that it’s a really crazy thing, they all just collide with each other And wandering around in crazy ways.

They will have average kinetic energy, which we perceive as temperature, But it may move very, very, very fast in that direction, While it may move very, very, very slowly, It may move very, very, very fast in that direction It may move very, very, very slowly in this direction So the thing to think about is, given that there are all these differences in the energy of all these particles, Which one is most likely to escape, actually evaporate? And to think about evaporation, just have to think about that most water molecules Or the water molecules in the droplet They have one attraction to another, we call it hydrogen bonds.

They have one attraction to the other, This is why rinsing stays in shape. But if one of the molecules moves fast enough and if it moves in the right direction She has a high chance of escape, To be able to escape this drop. And the process of these molecules that manage to escape is what we call evaporation.

If the molecule has enough energy, it will escape, releasing itself from the bonds of the other molecules. And just evaporate in the air. But we have not yet fully answered the question.

Let’s say it evaporated, she ran away from the drop. Why is it going to get rid of this entire system? Why would it cool the drop and eventually allow it to absorb more energy from the skin? Well, we’ve already said that those with the highest chance of escape are the ones with the most energy, Those who have the most kinetic energy. So if you have a lot of things, some fast, some slow, some vibrating a lot, less vibrating But those with the highest kinetic energy are most likely to escape, what happens when they run away? Well, the average kinetic energy will drop.

Or you could say the temperature would drop, Which is, simply, the average amount of movement or kinetic energy in a drop. If the fastest, those with a lot of energy, are leaving, then those who stay, on average, will have a lower average kinetic energy or a lower temperature. So this is what defines you at the molecular level.

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Intraoperative Nursing Care | NCLEX RN Review

Intraoperative Nursing Care | NCLEX RN Review

The intraoperative nurse cares for the patient from the time the patient is moved onto the OR bed until the patient is transferred to the care of the recovery room nurse, or postanesthesia care unit.

You may have heard the term “perioperative nursing” – this encompasses the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of the patient’s surgical experience. This article will focus on intraoperative nursing care.

Nursing responsibilities during the intraoperative phase include continuing the assessment of the patient’s physiologic and psychologic status, promoting safety and privacy, preventing wound infection, and promoting healing.

The surgical team must work together to deliver safe and effective care to the patient in the intraoperative phase.

The team is divided into categories based on responsibilities and consists of the primary surgeon and assistants, the scrub tech/nurse, circulating nurse, and anesthesiologist.

The surgeon, assistant, and scrub tech working the sterile field, while the circulating nurse, anesthesiologist, and other personnel functions outside the sterile field.

The circulating nurse is an RN with several responsibilities, including… Coordinating patient care before, during,and after the surgical procedure Providing emotional support to the patient and assisting the anesthesiologist during the initiation of anesthesia Ensuring patient safety, positioning and monitoring the patient, and enforcing policies and procedures throughout the surgery – including a “time out” Maintaining sterile technique while providing supplies and equipment for the sterile team Documenting all nursing care during the intraoperative period and making sure that surgical specimens are labeled correctly and placed in the appropriate media Recognizing and resolving environmental hazards that involve the patient or surgical team, including protecting the patient from electrical hazards Ensuring with the scrub tech that all sponge, instrument, and sharps counts are completed and documented And communicating relevant information to family members and other healthcare workers outside the ORThe surgical environment is designed to provide a safe therapeutic environment for the patient.

Traffic in and out of the operating suites kept to a minimum to decrease potential contamination from air turbulence and bacterial shedding. Floors, walls, and ceilings are made of materials that are easy to clean with antimicrobial agents. The temperature in the OR is kept between 68 and 75 degrees to reduce the risk of infection.

The relative humidity is kept between 40 to60%, which diminishes bacterial growth and restricts static electricity. The aseptic technique involves following practices that prevent contamination from pathogens and must be followed by all members of the team to reduce the risk of surgical site infections.

The Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN) has “Perioperative Standards and Recommended Practices” for asepsis that include the following: Scrubbed persons should function within the sterile field.

Sterile drapes should be used to establish a sterile field. Items used within a sterile field should be sterile. All items introduced onto a sterile field should be opened, dispensed, and transferred by methods that maintain sterility and integrity.

A sterile field should be maintained and monitored constantly. All personnel moving within or around a sterile field should do so in a manner that maintains the sterile field.

(Sterile persons remain close to the sterile field and never turn their backs to it.) Policies and procedures for maintaining a sterile field should be developed, reviewed periodically, and readily available in the practice setting.

Individuals working in the OR area major source of microbial contamination to the environment due to the large quantities of bacteria in the respiratory tract and on the skin, hair, and clothes.

Surgical attire is required to reduce the patient’s risk of surgical site infection (SSI) from microorganisms and also to protect personnel from exposure to hazardous substances and infectious microorganisms.

Everyone in the OR will need to wear a surgical cap, mask, and shoe/boot covers. Dressing in OR attire progresses from head to toe – surgical hat first (to prevent the shedding of microbes from the head/hair to the scrubs), then surgical scrub suit, face mask, and safety eyewear, and shoe/boot covers.

Non-sterile team members should wear a long-sleeve scrub jacket. Those in the sterile field will also perform surgical scrub of hands and arms before entering the OR to put on a sterile gown and gloves.

Double gloving is recommended and has many benefits including preventing SSI and protecting the hands of healthcare providers. Patient skin preparation involves the patient showering thoroughly with an antiseptic wash prior to surgery.

The intraoperative circulating nurse will be involved in hair removal from the surgical site (when necessary) and cleaning the incision site with a skin antiseptic, using the manufacturer’s recommendation for contact and drying time.

Skin preparation begins with mechanical scrubbing at the incision site, moving out in a circular fashion, away from the site. The sponge is considered contaminated when it reaches the outer edge and is then discarded. A new sponge is used each time the area is scrubbed.

Once the patient is prepped and draped in the OR, the circulating nurse usually initiates the “time-out” that takes place between the entire surgical team.

The “time out” is a verbal agreement that includes, at a minimum, the following… correct patient identity, correct site, and correct procedures to be performed. If implants or radiologic exams are involved, these should be verified at this time also.

Document the completion of the time-out, indicating that everything has been verified and agreed upon. The circulating RN plays a role in assisting the anesthesiologist with anesthesia.

Anesthesia may be a limited loss of feeling of a total loss of feeling, with or without loss of consciousness. There are three main types of anesthesia – local, regional, and general.

General anesthesia produces unconsciousness, regional anesthesia creates a loss of sensation in a particular area, and local anesthetic agents may be used alone or in conjunction with other anesthesia.

The OR nurse needs to know the various types of anesthetics used in surgery, methods of administration, and the potential side effects and complications, in order to assist the anesthesia team. Let’s look at a brief overview of the types of anesthesia.

NCLEX RN Practice Questions | NCLEX RN Quiz

NCLEX RN Practice Questions | Registered Nurse Quiz

In this article, we are going to share some most important multiple choice questions for those aspirants who want to participate in NCLEX RN Test. This quiz also helps to such types of candidates to improve their understanding and level of questions; which helps to crack NCLEX RN Test.

1 >>The charge nurse on the pediatric unit hears the overhead announcement of Code Pink (infant abduction), newborn nursery. Which action should the charge nurse implement? ?

  • (A) Send a staff member to the newborn nursery.
  • (B) Explain the situation to the clients and visitors.
  • (C) Continue with the charge nurse’s responsibilities.
  • (D) Station a staff member at all the unit exits.

2 >>The mother of a 4-year-old child diagnosed with Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy is overwhelmed and asks the nurse, “I have been told a case manager will come and talk to me. What will they do for me?” Which statement indicates the nurse understands the role of the case manager? ?

  • (A) “You will have a case manager so that the hospital can save money.”
  • (B) “She will make sure your child gets the right medication for muscular dystrophy.”
  • (C) “She will help you find the resources you need to care for your child.”
  • (D) “The case manager helps your child to have a normal life expectancy.”

3 >>The nurse is assigned to the pediatric unit performance improvement committee. The unit is concerned with IV infection rates. Which action should the nurse implement first when investigating the problem? ?

  • (A) Contact central supply for samples of IV start kits.
  • (B) Obtain research to determine the best length for IV dwell time.
  • (C) Identify how many IV infections have occurred in the last year.
  • (D) Audit the charts to determine if hospital policy is being followed.

4 >>The clinic nurse is discussing a tubal ligation with a 17-year-old adolescent with Down syndrome. The adolescent does not want the surgery, but her parents (who are also in the room) are telling her she must have it. Which statement by the nurse would be an example of the ethical principle of justice? ?

  • (A) “I think this requires further discussion before scheduling this procedure.”
  • (B) “You will not be able to have children after you have this procedure.”
  • (C) “You should have this procedure because you could not care for a child.”
  • (D) “You can refuse this procedure and your parents can’t make you have it.”

5 >>The school nurse has referred an 8-year-old student for further evaluation of vision. The single mother has told the school nurse she does not have the money for the evaluation or glasses. Which action by the nurse would be an example of client advocacy? ?

  • (A) Tell the mother the child cannot read the board.
  • (B) Refer the mother to a local service organization.
  • (C) Ask the mother if the family is on Medicaid.
  • (D) Loan the mother money for the examination.

6 >>The emergency department (ED) nurse is scheduling the 16-year-old client for an emergency appendectomy. Which intervention should the nurse implement when obtaining permission for the surgery? ?

  • (A) Withhold the narcotic pain medication until the client signs the permit.
  • (B) Have the client’s parent or legal guardian sign the operative permit.
  • (C) Explain the procedure to the client and the parents in simple terms.
  • (D) Get a visitor from the ED waiting area to witness the parent’s signature.

7 >>The unit manager has been notified by central supply that many client items are missing from stock and have not been charged to the client. Which action should the nurse manager implement regarding the lost charges? ?

  • (A) Send out a memo telling the staff to follow the charge procedures.
  • (B) Form a performance improvement committee to study the problem.
  • (C) Determine whether the items in question are being restocked daily.
  • (D) Schedule a staff meeting to discuss how to prevent further lost charges.

8 >>Which child’s behavior warrants notifying the child developmental specialist? ?

  • (A) The 1-year-old child who cries when the parent leaves the room.
  • (B) The 2-year-old child who can talk in two- or three-word sentences.
  • (C) The 3-year-old child who is toilet trained for bowel and bladder.
  • (D) The 4-year-old child who throws frequent temper tantrums.

9 >>Which child should the nurse assign to the new graduate who has just completed orientation to the pediatric unit? ?

  • (A) The 5-year-old child admitted in a sickle cell crisis whose patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump is not controlling the child’s pain.
  • (B) The 6-year-old child in Russell’s traction for a fractured femur who has insertion pin sites that are inflamed and infected.
  • (C) The 12-year-old child who is newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes who needs medication teaching.
  • (D) The 16-year-old female diagnosed with scoliosis who is being admitted for insertion of a spinal rod in the morning.

10 >>Which action by the emergency department (ED) nurse warrants intervention by the charge nurse? ?

  • (A) The nurse is elevating the right arm of a child who appears to have fractured the wrist.
  • (B) The nurse is notifying Child Protective Services for a child who is suspected of being sexually abused.
  • (C) The nurse is assessing the tonsils on a 4-year-old child who has a sore throat and is drooling.
  • (D) The nurse is obtaining a midstream urine specimen for the child who is complaining of burning upon urination.

11 >>Which interventions should the nurse implement to help establish a nurse/parent relationship? Select all that apply. ?

  • (A) Include the parents when developing the plan of care for their child.
  • (B) Encourage the parents to hold their child as much as possible.
  • (C) Allow the parents to verbalize their feelings of fear and anxiety.
  • (D) Tell the parents to never leave while the child is hospitalized.

12 >>The nurse is caring for clients on the pediatric unit. Which child would warrant a referral to the early childhood development specialist? ?

  • (A) The 9-month-old child who says only “mama” or “dada.”
  • (B) The 11-month-old child who walks hanging onto furniture.
  • (C) The 8-month-old child who sits by leaning forward on both hands.
  • (D) The 4-month-old infant who turns from the abdomen to the back.

13 >>The 10-year-old child diagnosed with leukemia is scheduled for a bone marrow aspiration. Which intervention is most important when obtaining informed consent for the procedure? ?

  • (A) Obtain assent from the child.
  • (B) Have the parent sign the permit.
  • (C) Refer any questions to the HCP.
  • (D) Witness the signature on the permit.

14 >>The 13-year-old client has just delivered a 4-pound baby boy. The stepfather of the client becomes verbally abusive to the nurse when he is asked to leave the room. The client is withdrawn and silent. Which legal action should the nurse implement? ?

  • (A) Call hospital security to come to the room.
  • (B) Contact Child Protective Services.
  • (C) Refer the child to the social worker.
  • (D) Ask the client whether she feels safe at home.

15 >>The fire alarm on the pediatric unit has just started sounding. Which action should the charge nurse implement first? ?

  • (A) Call the hospital operator to find out the location of the fire.
  • (B) Ensure that all visitors and clients are in the room with the door closed.
  • (C) Prepare to evacuate the clients and visitors down the stairs.
  • (D) Make a list of which clients are not currently on the unit.

16 >>A nurse overhears two other nurses talking about a client in the hospital dining room. Which action should the nurse implement first? ?

  • (A) Notify the HIPAA officer about the breach of confidentiality.
  • (B) Immediately report the two nurses to their clinical manager.
  • (C) Document the situation in writing and submit to the Chief Nursing Officer (CNO).
  • (D) Tell the two nurses they are violating the client’s confidentiality.

17 >>The nurse is caring for newborns in the nursery. Which newborn warrants immediate intervention by the nurse? ?

  • (A) The 8-hour-old newborn who has not passed meconium.
  • (B) The 15-hour-old newborn who is slightly jaundiced.
  • (C) The 4-hour-old newborn who is jittery and irritable.
  • (D) The 10-hour-old newborn who will not stop crying.

18 >>The nurse who has never worked on the maternity ward has been pulled from the surgical unit to work in the newborn nursery. Which assignment would be most appropriate for the nurse to accept? ?

  • (A) Perform an assessment on the newborn.
  • (B) Assist the pediatrician with a circumcision.
  • (C) Gavage feed a newborn who is 8 hours old.
  • (D) Transport newborns to the mothers’ room.

19 >>The nurse is instructing the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) on gross motor skill activity that is appropriate for a developmentally delayed 9-month-old infant. Which activity should the nurse delegate to the UAP? ?

  • (A) Help the child to sit without support.
  • (B) Teach the child to catch the beach ball.
  • (C) Reward the child with food for sitting up.
  • (D) Teach the child to blow a kiss.

20 >>Which incident should the primary nurse report to the clinical manager concerning a violation of information technology guidelines? ?

  • (A) The nurse keeps the computer screen turned away from public view.
  • (B) The nurse researches medications using the online formulary.
  • (C) The nurse shares the computer access code with another nurse.
  • (D) The nurse logs off the computer when leaving the terminal.