What do you mean by Etiquettes?

Etiquettes

Confident, considerate manners make winners!

Manners help to:

• Maintain order and promote positive interactions among people.
• Put people at ease and impress others.
• Build self-esteem.
• Show respect and consideration to others.
• Allow people to live and work together without friction.
• Make you stand out from the crowd.
• Be more attentive to others.
• Feel more comfortable in all situations

I) Table manners

The Dinner Meeting

Every businessperson either has or will be going through a situation like this, and it is extremely important to know proper business etiquette.

All the preliminary arrangements – restaurant selection, reservations, etc., have to be arranged in advance. If it is a formal meal, select the appropriate silverware and glassware.

However, it is equally important that meal manners are not taken too seriously. With time and practice, table manners can become as automatic as any other aspect of professional behaviour. Even so, today’s business etiquette is much simpler than a few years ago. Terms like social graces, style, niceties, courtesy, and acceptable procedure help to give us a sense of the importance of professional social skills.

<!–next page–>

Behave yourself…

The most important part of the session would be your behaviour. Learn to behave yourself lest you put yourself or others in an embarrassing position.

• Plan to arrive at the restaurant at least ten minutes early. This will allow time to relax and collect thoughts before the occasion.

• Do not arrive too early because this will show over-anxiousness.
• Definitely do not arrive late for dinner, or any other business meeting, for that matter. Should this occur, contact the host/hostess to notify him/her about being tardy.
• Hosts/hostesses order last and are served last.

Allow guests to read the menu, and offer suggestions only if asked.

As a guest, order whatever appears appetizing, as long as it is not the most expensive item on the menu.

Be careful what you choose from the menu. Messy dishes should be avoided as far as possible
Any behaviour that is unappetizing is automatically discourteous.
Wait for everyone to be served before eating.

Don’t chew with your mouth open.

Chew and swallow before speaking.

Take small bites.

Don’t play with your food or wave it on your utensils.

Keep your elbows off the table.

Don’t comb you hair (or any other grooming chores) at the table.

Don’t talk about gross things at the table.

Don’t criticize the food. Pass to your right. And, always pass the salt and pepper together.

Say “Please” and “Thank you” while passing food.

Use the flat surface on the edge of your plate and not the spoon, to twirl pasta to avoid messy hanging strands.

Don’t blow on your coffee or soup. Just give enough time for the hot food or beverages to cool.

Don’t eat with your fingers. Use a fork to cut French fries into bite-sized pieces as well as to eat meat.

Don’t chew ice cubes.

Avoid smoking as far as possible.

Discuss business after ordering. Keep papers off the table until after the entree plates have been cleared.

The napkin is the one on the left. Place it in your lap as soon as you are seated, or as soon as the host/hostess does if you are a guest.

At a formal restaurant the server will remove the napkin from the wineglass or serving plate and place it across your lap. You may tuck the napkin into the belt (but not the collar because it is not a bib) it will help from clothing getting stained.

When it comes to your turn with the breadbasket, don’t split a roll and leave part of it in the basket. And, don’t pick through and touch every piece. Quickly select something and pass the basket along. If it turns out you don’t like it, just leave it on your plate.

Go ahead and use your knife on your salad. It’s better to cut up large chunks than to try to stuff them in your face.

Between bites, see to it that the soupspoons stay in the soup bowls. The knife generally rests on the edge of your plate, while putting your fork in the centre of your plate shows that you are still eating.
If you spill or drop something, just call the waitperson, explain the situation and let him remedy the problem. .

Etiquettes

A formal dinner setting

In the centre will be a dinner plate. The flatware is laid out in such a way that one starts from the outside and moves inward towards the dinner plate. When the food is served, begin eating after everyone at the table has received his or her food. Once finished with the salad, keep the used dinner knife on the bread and butter plate, which is located in the upper-left hand comer of the place setting. However, if the dinner fork has not been used, it may be placed in its original position, to the right of the dinner plate. Place the fork with prongs down, across the plate at a nine o’clock three o’clock position.

This indicates to the server that one is finished with the salad The food will be served from the right – expect the server to reach over your right shoulder. Lean slightly left as this occurs. Keep elbows off the table while eating, but resting forearms there between courses is permissible. Between the dinner knife and the seafood fork is the soupspoon. While eating soup, move the spoon away from oneself.It is proper etiquette to sip the soup from the side of the soupspoon.

Be careful not to drop a utensil or napkin on the floor. If this does occur, just leave it on the floor and ask the server for another. Hold the knife in the right hand with the index finger on the handle slightly overlapping the blade. Hold the fork, prongs down, with the left hand. Elbows should be kept slightly above the table. Remember to cut of only one piece of food at a time. Once a piece of the meal has been successfully cut, lay the knife on the plate, transfer the fork, with the prongs up, and then carry the food to the mouth. If there is a need to leave the business meal for a moment to use the bathroom facility, or to make a telephone call, politely ask to be excused. Excuse yourself for all biological functions, including the need to blow one’s nose. Blowing one’s nose on the restaurant’s napkins-paper or otherwise-is very bad form.

What is First Aid?

FIRST AID

1.0 Introduction

What is First Aid?

First aid is the immediate and temporary care given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness. Its purpose is to preserve life, assist recovery and prevent aggravation of the condition, until the services of a DOCTOR can be obtained, or during transport to hospital or to the casualty’s home.

The principles and practice of First Aid are based on the principles of practical medicine and surgery, a knowledge of which, in case of accident or sudden illness, enables trained persons to give such skilled assistance as will preserve life, promote recovery and prevent the injury or illness becoming worse until medical aid (i.e., treatment by a DOCTOR) has been obtained.

1.1 Qualities of a First Aider:

Observant: Noting the cause and signs of injury

Tactful: Avoiding thoughtless qualities learning the symptoms and history of the case
Resourceful: Using whatever is at hand to the best advantage, so as to prevent further damage.
Explicit: Giving clear instructions to the patient and advise to the assistants.

Discriminating: That he may decide which of the several injuries should be given attention.
The First Aider’s responsibilities end as soon as medical aid is available; but he should stand by after making his report to the Doctor in case he can be of further assistance.

First aid is definitely limited to the assistance rendered at the time of emergency with the available material. It is not intended that the First aider should take the place of the Doctor and it must be clearly understood that the redressing if injuries and other such after-treatment are outside the scope of First aid.

First Aid

1.2 GOLDEN RULES OF FIRST AID:

• Be calm and quick. Be methodical. Patiently find out all major injuries and wounds and treat them suitably.
• In case, stoppage of breathing, start artificial respiration.
• Try to stop bleeding as early as possible.
• So not allow a patient to go with a shock. If it is not possible, transport the patient to a near by hospital as quickly as possible.
• Keep the patient warm and do not move him unnecessarily. Keep him in a comfortable position.
• Do only what is necessary.
• Reassure the casualty by using encouraging words and obtain the help of his relatives.
• Do not allow people to crowd around the casualty. Allow fresh air.
• Be careful in removing his clothes. Do not cause injury. Keep him warm and avoid shock. Send the patient to a doctor or a hospital by the quickest means of transport. When serious accidents take place, inform the police.
• Some standard methods of treatment are given for a number of definite conditions, which may occur in different circumstances, but the First Aider will find that these conditions seldom conform to an exact pattern and that even in the same circumstances individuals may react in different ways. He must be prepared Cold Emergencies

Legal & to sum up any situation with which he may be faced and adapt himself to wide variation from the methods described here.

1.3 OBJECTIVE

At the end of the training, the First Aider should be able to:-
• To determine the nature of the case requiring attention so far as is necessary for intelligent and efficient treatment (diagnosis).
• To decide on the character and extent the treatment to be given and to apply the treatment most suited to the circumstances until medical aid is available.
• To arrange for the disposal of the casualty by removal either to his home, or other suitable shelter, or to hospital.

2.0 Basic Techniques to Handle Common Medical Emergencies

• Order of Treatment Priority
• Obstructed Airway
• Heart Attack
• Bleeding
• Shock
• Burns
• Eye Injuries
• Nose injuries
• Animal & Insect Bites
• Fractures, Sprains & Strains
• Poisoning
• Diabetic Emergencies
• Stroke
• Seizures
• Heat Emergencies
• Ethical Considerations

2.1 Order of Priority in an Emergency

In every emergency situation, there is a logical order to be followed. First, it is important to carefully assess the scene of an emergency before any further steps are taken. The purpose of this assessment is to assure it is safe to provide first aid care. For example, an unconscious victim might be lying on a live power line. If a rescuer were to touch the victim before the power could be shut off, the rescuer would become a victim as well! Always be sure it is safe before you attempt to help a victim!
Once you determine it is safe for you to help a victim, you should immediately determine if the victim has any life threatening conditions.

Begin by checking to see if the victim is responsive. Kneel and ask, ” ARE YOU OK?” If there is no response, you must immediately summon an ambulance! Recent studies have conclusively shown that victims who are not breathing and do not have a heartbeat have a substantially greater chance for survival if they receive prompt advanced medical care in a hospital or by trained paramedics.
Only after a call is placed for emergency medical services does a volunteer attempt to further help an unconscious victim.

If there are bystanders on the scene, summon someone to your side to provide assistance.
If the victim is on his stomach, first place the victim’s arm closest to you above his head. Then turn him over by placing one hand on the victim’s hip and the other hand at the victim’s shoulder. Turn the body in a smooth, even straight line so as to not cause further injury in the event of existing spinal cord injury.

With the victim now on his back, OPEN THE VICTIM’S AIRWAY by placing the heel of your hand on the victim’s forehead and the tips of your fingers under the bony part of the jaw.
Push down on the forehead while lifting up the chin until the jaw is pointing straight up. Now place your ear over the victim’s mouth and LOOK, LISTEN & FEEL for breathing for 3 to 5 seconds. LOOK at the chest to see if it is rising,

LISTEN for sounds of breathing and FEEL for air coming from the victim.

IF THE VICTIM IS NOT BREATHING, RESCUE BREATHING IS REQUIRED IMMEDIATELY!
IMPORTANT WHILE THIS TUTORIAL IDENTIFIES LIFE THREATENING CONDITIONS REQUIRING RESCUE BREATHING OR CPR (CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION), THESE SKILLS REQUIRE INTENSIVE CLASSROOM SKILL DEVELOPMENT AND PRACTICE AND CANNOT BE EFFECTIVELY PRESENTED OR TAUGHT IN THIS TUTORIAL. THE AUTHOR STRONGLY ENCOURAGES EVERYONE TO ENROLL IN A CPR COURSE.

Yoga & Fitness

Yoga & Fitness

Definition of Yoga

Yoga is a complete science of life that originated in India many thousands of years ago. It is the oldest system of self development in the world encompassing the body, mind and spirit. It is the union of the personal consciousness and the universal consciousness. The Ancient Yogis had a profound understanding of man’s essential nature so that he could live in harmony with himself and his environment. They perceived the physical body as a vehicle, with the mind as the driver, the soul as the owner, and action, emotion and intelligence as the three forces which pull the body-vehicle. In order to these integrate these, these three forces must be in balance. Taking into account the interrelationship between body and mind, the Yogis formulated a unique method for maintaining this balance – a method that combines all the movements you need for physical health with Breathing and Meditation techniques that ensure peace of mind.

Yoga & Fitness

The classical techniques of Yoga date back by more than 5,000 years. In ancient times, the desire for greater personal freedom, Health and long life, and heightened self-understanding gave birth to this system of physical and mental exercise which has since spread throughout the world. The word Yoga means “to join or yoke together,” and it brings the body and mind together into one harmonious experience.

Yoga is a method of learning that aims to attain the unity of mind, body and spirit through three main Yoga structures: Exercise, Breathing, and Meditation. The exercises of Yoga are designed to exert pressure on the Glandular Systems of the body, thereby increasing their efficiency and total health. The body is looked upon as the primary instrument that enables us to work and evolve in the world. A Yoga student; therefore, treats it with great care and respect. The Breathing Techniques are based on the concept that breath is the source of life in the body. Yoga students gently increase their breath control to improve the health and the functioning of both body and mind. These two systems prepare the body and mind for Meditation, making it easier for students to achieve a quiet and stress-free mind. Regular daily practice of all three parts of this structure of Yoga produces a clear, bright mind and a strong, capable body.

Six Branches of Yoga

 Hatha Yoga
Hatha Yoga or Yoga of Postures is the most popular branch of Yoga. Hatha Yoga considers the body as the vehicle for the soul. It uses Physical Pose or Asana, Breathing Techniques or Pranayama to bring the body in perfect health, and Meditation for the subtle spiritual elements of the mind to emerge freely. The practice of Hatha Yoga will result in the union of the body and the soul. It aims to make the body perfect and fill it with life force.

 Bhakti Yoga

Bhakti Yoga is the path of heart or the Yoga of devotion. Yogis who practice Bhakti Yoga see the Divine in everyone and everything they encounter. This leads him to develop love, acceptance and tolerance for all. Bhakti Yoga teaches a person to have devotion to God and all things through devotion to life and love.

 Raja Yoga

Raja means “royal”. Raja Yoga is the path of Yoga that focuses on meditation and contemplation. It is based on the Eight Limbs of Yoga, which is mentioned in the Yoga Sutra. This Yoga path teaches deep self-respect through self mastery. The Self is honoured here. Raja Yoga believes that the universe exists for the self, giving the self an illusion of centrality which results in self respect and respect for all creatures. Raja Yoga is also referred to as the Yoga of. Kings

 Jnana Yoga

Jnana Yoga is the path of Yoga that deals with wisdom and knowledge or the Yoga of the mind. Jnana Yogis pays tribute on man’s intelligence. They try to surpass limitations by unifying intellect and wisdom. Jnana Yoga tries to obtain existence beyond doctrine and ideological controversies by accepting all other philosophies and religion. It also uses an open, rational and curious mind in studying the spirit.

 Karma Yoga

Karma Yoga believes that your present situation is based on your past actions. Karma Yoga is the path of service; it refers to the energy of action. This path requires you to be selfless. Performing a selfless service is the essence of Karma Yoga or consciously choosing a future that is free from negativity and selfishness knowing that your life is a consequence of your past actions. Karma Yoga practices try to change your action towards the good – good words, good thoughts, good deeds, in order to change your soul. By being selfless, you change your consciousness which leads to a change in your destiny.

 Tantra Yoga

Tantra Yoga is the path of ritual and perhaps the most misunderstood path. Some may think of Tantra Yoga as sorcery, witchcraft, magic spell or some mysterious formula. Most people perceive Tantra Yoga as sexual. All of these perceptions are far from truth. Tantra is the knowledge concerning Tattva (Truth or Brahman) and Mantra (mystic syllables). It utilizes rituals to respectfully experience the sacred in everything we do, not just sex, though sex is a part of it. It aims to expand our awareness in all states – whether awake or asleep. Tantra Yoga practitioners must have purity, humility, devotion, courage, dedication to his Guru, cosmic love, faithfulness, contentment, dispassion, non-covetousness, and truthfulness.

The System of Yoga – Yoga Breathing, Poses, and Meditation

The System of Yoga is neither complex or mysterious. Below we have tried to give you a comprehensive overview of the system of Yoga. The interconnection between Yoga Exercise, Breathing and Meditation is the key to the system.

One basic assumption of the Yoga Sutras is that the body and the mind are part of one continuum of existence, the mind being more subtle than the body. This is the foundation of the yogic view of health. The interaction of body and mind is the central concern of the entire science. It is believed that as the body and mind are brought into balance and health, the individual will be able to perceive his true nature; this will allow life to be lived through him more freely and spontaneously.

What is Meditation? | Importance of Meditation

Meditation: Importance of Meditation

1.0 What is meditation?

The basic idea generally associated with why people meditate is that during our day we are constantly subjected to sensory input and our minds are always active in the process of thinking. We read the newspaper, study books, write reports, engage in conversation, solve problems, etc . Typically, as we do these normal activities we engage in a constant mental commentary, sort of an inner “The Drama of Me.” Usually people aren’t fully aware of all the mental thought activity that we are constantly engaged in. Meditation allows all this activity to settle down, and often results in the mind becoming more peaceful, calm and focused. In essence, meditation allows the awareness to become ‘rejuvenated’.
Meditation can be considered a technique, or practice. It usually involves concentrating on an object, such as a flower, a candle, a sound or word, or the breath. Over time, the number of random thoughts occurring diminishes.

More importantly, your attachment to these thoughts, and your identification with them, progressively become less. The meditator may get caught up in a thought pattern, but once he/she becomes aware of this, attention is gently brought back to the object of concentration.
Meditation can also be objectless, for example consisting of just sitting. Experiences during meditation probably vary significantly from one individual to another, or at least if different techniques are involved. Relaxation, increased awareness, mental focus and clarity, and a sense of peace are the most common by-products of meditation. While much has been written about the benefits of meditation, the best attitude is not to have any expectations when practicing. Having a sense of expectation of (positive)results is likely to create unnecessary strain in the practice. As well, since meditation involves becoming more aware and more sensitive to what is within you, facing unpleasant parts of oneself may well be part of meditation.

importance of Meditation

Regardless of the experience, the meditator should try to be aware of the experience and of any attachment to it. Failure to experience silence, peace of mind, mental clarity, bliss, or other promoted benefit of meditation is not in itself a sign of incorrect practice or that one can’t concentrate properly or concentrate enough to be good at meditation. Whether one experiences peace or bliss is not what is important.

What is generally considered important in meditation is that one is regular with the meditation -every day- and that makes a reasonable effort, but not strain, to remain with the object of concentration during the practice. With regular practice one inevitably acquires an increased understanding of and proficiency with the particular meditation technique. Some people use the formal concentrative meditation as a preliminary step to practicing a mindfulness meditation during the day where one tries to maintain a calm but increased awareness of one’s thoughts and actions during the day. For some people, meditation is primarily a spiritual practice, and in some cases the meditation practice may be closely tied to the practice of a religion such as, for example, Hinduism or Buddhism.

2.How is meditation different from relaxation, thinking, concentration or self-hypnosis?

Relaxation: Relaxation is a common by-product of meditation. Relaxation itself can assume many forms, such as taking a hot bath or reclining in the Lazy-boy and watching TV, etc. Meditation is an active process where the meditator remains fully aware of what the awareness is doing. It also attempts to transcend the thought process whereas many forms of relaxation still engage the thought process. Meditation allows the body to relax and can offset the effects of stress both mentally and physically to a potentially much greater degree than passive relaxation.

Thinking: Thoughts generally consume energy in the process of their formation. Constant thought-activity, especially of random nature, can tire the mind and even bring on headache. Meditation attempts to transcend this crude level of thought activity. Through regular practice one becomes aware that they are not their thoughts but that there is an awareness that exists independent of thought. Descartes (“I think, therefore I am”) obviously was not a regular meditator!

Concentration: Meditation begins with concentration, but after an initial period of concentration, thought activity decreases and keeping the awareness focused becomes more spontaneous. At this point the person may or may not continue to employ the object of concentration.
Self-hypnosis: Self-hypnosis, like meditation, involves at least an initial period of concentration on an object. However in hypnosis one does not try to maintain an awareness of the here-and-now, or to stay conscious of the process. Instead one essentially enters a sort of semi-conscious trance.

3. What are the different meditation techniques?

Meditation involves concentrating on something to take our attention beyond the random thought activity that is usually going on in our heads. This can involve a solid object or picture, a mantra, breath, or guided visualisation. Typical objects employed include a candle flame or a flower. Some people use pictures, such as a mandala – a highly colored symmetric painting – or a picture of a spiritual teacher in a high meditative state. Mantras are sounds, which have a flowing, meditative quality and may be repeated out loud or inwardly. The breath is also a common focal point. Finally, guided visualisation is also considered by some to be a form of meditation. A guided visualisation can help to bring one into a meditative state; also, visualisation may be used once a meditative state has been reached to produce various results.

4.Which is right for me?

There is no “right” meditation technique for everybody. Some techniques work better for certain people while other techniques work better for other people. The important thing is to find what works for you.

5. What are the ABC’s of meditation?

There are a few recommended guidelines for meditation:
• It should be done every day, preferably at the same time.
• It should preferably be done before a meal rather than after a meal.

6. Is there any religious implication or affiliation with meditation?

Meditation has been and still is a central practice in eastern religions, for contacting “God” or one’s higher Self. Christianity also has semblance of meditation, such as the biblical statement “The kingdom of heaven is within you”. Churches have a meditative atmosphere. Meditation deals with contacting something within us that is peaceful, calm, rejuvenating, and meaningful. Whether one calls this something “God” or “soul” or ” the inner child” or “theta-wave activity” or “peace” or “silence” is not important. It is there and anyone can benefit from it regardless of what they believe. Most people in the world have already meditated. If you have relaxed looking at a beautiful sunset, allowing your thoughts to quiet down, this is close to meditation. If you have been reading a book for awhile, then put it down to take a break and just sat there quietly and peacefully for a few minutes without thinking, this is close to meditation.

7. Does meditation have any ethical implications?

In many traditions meditation practice is a means for reinforcing ethical qualities. In these traditions, calmness of mind, peacefulness and happiness are possible in meditation and in life generally only if they are accompanied by the observance of ethical norms of behaviour.

8. What is the best time of day to meditate?

While meditation is beneficial at any time, most people who meditate agree that early morning is the best time to meditate. Part of the reason is that it is said that in early morning the hustle-and-bustle of the world has not yet begun and so it is easier to establish a meditative atmosphere. Having an early morning meditation also lets us carry some of the energy and peace of the meditation into our daily activities. Many people also meditate either before dinner or later in the evening. Others also meditate at noon. A short meditation at these times allows one to throw off some of the accumulated stress of the work-day and become rejuvenated for further activity. An important consideration is when your schedule will allow you to meditate. Having a time of the day set aside for meditation helps in maintaining regularity.

9. Why do some people use music while meditating?

Meditative music (not rock-n-roll!) can help in establishing a meditative atmosphere. Also, some people find meditation relatively easy but find that the hard thing is to actually get them to sit down and start their meditation. Music can help make this easier. Some people use music quite often while others prefer silent meditation and never use it.

10. Should I meditate with my eyes open or with my eyes closed?

Different traditions give different answers. Closing your eyes may contribute to drowsiness and sleepiness–if that’s the case for you then try opening them a little. Opening your eyes may be distracting. If that’s the case, try closing your eyes or direct your gaze on a blank wall (Zen-style). Or try with the eyes open half way or a bit more, the gaze unfocussed and directed down ward, but keeping the head erect with the chin slightly tucked in. Sometimes meditators experience headaches from focussing on a spot too close to the eyes (perhaps closer than three feet). Whether focussed or unfocussed, the gaze should be relaxed in order to prevent eyestrain or headache. Experiment and see what works for you and then stick with your choice of technique. If you are using a candle, flower, or other visual object in your meditation then here the technique itself requires your eyes to be at least partly open.

11. What are the physiological effects of meditation?

The most common physiological effects of meditation are reduced blood pressure, lower pulse rate, decreased metabolic rate and changes in the concentration of serum levels of various substances.

12. When I meditate I experience physical pain in my body. What should I do?

Sensations (itching/aches/pains/etc.) can arise in the body when meditating for several reasons. Sometimes the cause is just an uncomfortable posture–make sure that your posture is comfortable under normal circumstances. Other times the cause is that sensation in the body are more noticeable in meditation. The body and mind are calmer and you are able to notice more details in your bodily experience. It is often interesting to simply observe these sensations in your body : to use them as the objects of meditation. Sometimes these sensations just go away without your having to move or change your posture. Remember that a quiet body contributes to a quiet mind.

13. How long should I meditate?

When first learning meditation it is usually not possible to meditate for more than 10-15 minutes. After regular practice for a while, one becomes able to meditate for longer periods of time. Many people meditate twice daily for 20-30 minutes each time, but the right duration and frequency is for each individual to decide.

14. Do I need a teacher?

It is theoretically possible to learn meditation from a book. However most people who teach and practice meditation agree that a teacher can be an invaluable aid in learning a meditation technique and making sure it is practiced correctly. The beginner will usually have several questions, which a teacher will be able to answer. Also, learning with a group of people, eg a meditation class, allows you to experience the benefit of meditating with a group of people. Most people find that they have some of their best meditations while meditating in a group, because there is a collective energy and focus present. Various individuals and groups teach meditation. Some charge and some do not. Many different techniques are taught, some more spirituals in nature and others mainly concerned with stress-reduction and gaining a little peace of mind. As always, the important thing is finding what works for you.

Annexure I

MEDITATION

Everyone seeks peace and harmony, because these are what we lack in our lives. From time to time we all experience agitation, irritation, disharmony, suffering; and when one suffers from agitation, one does not keep this misery limited to oneself. One keeps distributing it to others as well. The agitation permeates the atmosphere around the miserable person. Everyone who comes into contact with him also becomes irritated and agitated. Certainly this is not the proper way to live.

What is Stress Management?

Stress Management

What is Stress?

Stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. People feel little stress when they have the time, experience and resources to manage a situation. They feel great stress when they think they can’t handle the demands put upon them.

Stress is the “wear and tear” our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment. It has physical and emotional effects on us and can create positive or negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress can help compel us to action; it can result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective. As a negative influence, it can result in feelings of distrust, rejection, anger, and depression, which in turn can lead to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. With the death of a loved one, the birth of a child, a job promotion, or a new relationship, we experience stress as we readjust our lives. In so adjusting to different circumstances, stress will help or hinder us depending on how we react to it.

How to Manage Stress?

As we have seen, positive stress adds anticipation and excitement to life, and we all thrive under a certain amount of stress. Deadlines, competitions, confrontations, and even our frustrations and sorrows add depth and enrichment to our lives. Our goal is not to eliminate stress but to learn how to manage it and how to use it to help us. Insufficient stress acts as a depressant and may leave us feeling bored or dejected; on the other hand, excessive stress may leave us feeling “tied up in knots”. What we need to do is find the optimal level of stress that will individually motivate but not overwhelm each of us.

There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people. We are all individual creatures with unique requirements. As such, what is distressing to one may be a joy to another. And even when we agree that a particular event is distressing, we are likely to differ in our physiological and psychological responses to it.

The person who loves to arbitrate disputes and move from job site to job site would be stressed in a job which was stable and routine, whereas the person who thrives under stable conditions would very likely be stressed in a job where duties were highly varied. Also, our personal stress requirements and the amount which we can tolerate before we become distressed changes with our life-styles and our ages.

It has been found that most illness is related to unrelieved stress. If you are experiencing stress symptoms, you have gone beyond your optimal stress level; you need to reduce the stress in your life and/or improve your ability to manage it.

Finding the cause of the anxiety is the first step in resolving a problem with stress. Stress management refers to the effort to control and reduce the tension that occurs with a situation that is considered difficult or unmanageable. Identifying unrelieved stress and being aware of its effect on our lives is not sufficient for reducing its harmful effects. Just as there are many sources of stress, there are many possibilities for its management. However, all require effort toward change: changing the source of stress and/or changing your reaction to it.

There are three major approaches that we can use to manage stress:
• Action-oriented: In which we seek to confront the problem causing the stress, changing the environment or the situation.
• Emotionally-oriented: In which we do not have the power to change the situation, but we can manage stress by changing our interpretation of the situation and the way we feel about it; and
• Acceptance-oriented: Where something has happened over which we have no power and no emotional control, and where our focus is on surviving the stress.
Stress management involves the effort of a person in making emotional and physical changes. The degree of stress and the desire to make the changes will determine the level of change that will take place.
The attitude of an individual can influence whether a situation or emotion is stressful or not. A person with a negative attitude will often perceive many situations as being stressful. Negative attitude is the predictor of stress, because this type of person is more affected by stress than a person with a more positive attitude.

If the nutritional status of the person is poor, the body is stressed and the person is not able to cope well in a stressful situation. As a result, the person can be more susceptible to infections. A poor nutritional state can be related to unhealthy food choices, inadequate food intake, or an erratic eating schedule. A nutritionally unbalanced eating pattern can result in an inadequate intake of nutrients.
Inadequate physical activity can result in a stressful state for body. Physical activity has both physiological and psychological benefits. A consistent programme of physical activity can contribute to a decrease in depression, if it exists. It also improves the feeling of well-being.
A minimal or total lack of mutually supportive friendships/relationships due to family problems or other social problems in general can cause stress. Social situations can be beyond the coping ability of a stressed person.

When a person has no hobbies or means of relaxation, he may be unable to handle stressful situations because the individual has no outlet for stress.
Warnings & Consequences of Physical Signs of Excess Stress:

Physical warning Physical consequences
Insomnia
Headaches
Heartburn
Backaches
Peptic ulcers
Cramps
Indigestion Arthritis
Glaucoma
Multiple sclerosis
Stroke
Cancer
Leukemia

Warning and consequences of Mental signs of Excess Stress
Mental warning Mental consequences
Lack of concentration
Loss of memory
Anxiety
Unjustifiable fears
Quick to cry
Quick to anger
Excessive worry Loss of self-confidence
Physical illness
Total mental breakdown
Chemical dependencies

 

Stress by itself can’t hurt anyone. Its how we respond to stress that counts.

What is Conflict Management?

Conflict Management

1.0 One of the primary purposes of the organisation is the coordination and integration of the efforts of many people to attain mutual goals and objectives. As people work together, tensions sometimes develop that result in dissension and hostility. Traditionally, conflict has been considered to be something that does not have to take place, but frequently does. It has been viewed as a consequence of greed, self-centeredness and competition. Conflict has been seen as a disruptive force that keeps Organisation from being optimally productive. In the traditional view, managers are supposed to eliminate conflict from the organisation. Conflict is seen to be harmful in its consequences.

1.1 A more contemporary view sees conflict as inevitable when people work together. Conflict occurs as a consequence of many factors, including the struggle to excel and achieve. Conflict, although sometimes working in a detrimental way, can also have constructive effects on organisational and personal performance. A certain amount of conflict and tension may even be essential for optimal performance to occur. Managers must control conflict so that the result is positive and beneficial to the organisation and its members. Successful and unsuccessful outcomes from conflicts may be partially a result of the leadership skills of the supervisors involved. Constructive conflict management may also be a product of the proper identification and treatment of problems areas.

2.0 MANAGEMENT’S GOAL WHEN CONFLICT ARISES

2.1.1 If conflict is to be managed positively and constructively, those who manage need a set of goals and objectives. Although the goals may not always be attainable, they provide a helpful set of guidelines to pursue. When conflict arises, managers and supervisors who are in a position to influence and affect the attitudes and actions of those in disagreement may find it helpful to (1) identify the causes and feelings of the parties involved. (2) redirect tension and hostilities (3) work to integrate ideas rather than accept a compromise (4) achieve unity between the parties in conflict (5) accomplish real and permanent solutions, (6) achieve a sense of fairness among those involved and (7) result in satisfaction for all of the parties involved.

conflict management

2.2 IDENTIFYING WHAT IS BEHIND THE CONFLICT

2.2.1 Conflict may be symptomatic of more deep-seated problems that may need attention and corrective action. The underlying causes of conflict, if left unattended, can fester and develop into even deeper, more severe problems. Resolution of conflict that deals only with the surface tensions and not with actual causes can be considered only a temporary treatment of conflict. A more thorough approach to conflict is to identify and deal with the causes of conflict rather than the symptoms.

2.3 REDIRECTING TENSIONS AND HOSTILITIES

2.3.1 It is important to avoid the statement, “Provide for a release of tensions”, because it has been discovered that people are often more highly motivated when a “healthy” amount of tension prevails. If an individual feels strongly enough about something, it would be more helpful to channel interests and feelings in a positive direction rather than simply to release feelings and emotions. In other words, when tension is felt, the channeling of that tension toward the discovery and resolution of the problem, rather than toward the simple venting of emotions, may be a productive endeavor.

2.4 INTEGRATION OF IDEAS

2.4.1 It is better to achieve an integration of ideas from the conflicting parties rather to reach a compromise as a solution. Decisions involving more than one person do not have to be reached on the basis of pure compromise in which each party states a position and then the two extremes are conceded to a purely middle-ground position between poles. The middle-ground position tends to represent not the most satisfactory resolution of conflict but simply the most expedient solution. In place of the compromise position, conflict is best resolved with a solution that is most beneficial both for the organisation and for the parties involved. Integration is better than compromise–it represents the best possible position. By integrating the ideas of the conflicting parties, the best ideas and concepts are utilized rather than the most easily agreed upon ideas.

2.5 ACHIEVING UNITY

2.5.1 Unity can be achieved through a meeting of the minds between the parties in conflict. This desired result of the proper handling of conflict is not absolutely essential, but it is helpful. Through unity, the efforts and interests of individuals can be coordinated and cooperation tends to lead to progress. The parties to a conflict tend to distance themselves from each other, and communication diminishes both in amount and in quality.

2.6 ACCOMPLISHING REAL AND PERMANENT SOLUTIONS

2.6.1 Artificial, temporary solutions are quickly recognized by individuals and will not be respected or supported. Only genuine resolutions that attend to the causes of the conflict will be supported by those affected.

2.7 ACHIEVING A SENSE OF FAIRNESS AND SATISFACTION

2.7.1 It is important to those in disagreement that each party’s view be given due consideration. Those who are in conflict usually have emotions and reasons that they deserve to be heard. They may have specific solutions in mind or they may not know what the best answers are. However, if a participant has an opportunity to express feelings and the rationale behind them and to suggest solutions if they are known, the individual will feel a sense of fairness to some degree. Even if the ultimate solution decided upon is not the one the participant preferred, the realization that his or her position has been heard and seriously considered normally helps to achieve better, more objective feelings toward the solution reached. This feeling of fairness and objectivity is likely to result in better resolution of conflict. When individuals and group feel fairly treated, they are more likely to be satisfied with the solutions reached.

3.0 SOURCES OF CONFLICT

3.0.1 The sources can be broadly classified as Problems based upon individual variances, difficulties resulting from perceptual differences, and issues arising out of characteristics of the organisation and functional differences.

3.1 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

3.1.1 No two persons are identical. People’s temperaments vary. Some individuals are aggressive, others are passive, and still others are assertive. Some individuals are extrovert, others tend to be introspective and self-centered. Some people are highly ambitious and upward-bound, while others seek primarily to preserve and protect what they already have. One worker may want to work with other people, while another will prefer working alone. One individual will prefer independence in decision making, while another will seek out the opinions and ideas of others before acting. One worker may be able to withstand criticism and act with a high degree of tolerance, while another may react emotionally at the slightest personal challenge.

What is Leadership?

Leadership

1.0 Objective: To explain the nature of leadership, the different types of leadership, the different models of leadership, the qualities of a good supervisor.

1.1 Leadership is the process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastically toward objectives… It is the human factor that helps a group to identify where it is going and then motivates it towards its goals. Without leadership, an organisation would only be a confusion of people and machines, just as orchestra without a conductor would only be musicians and instruments. The organisations require leadership to develop their precious assets to their fullest.

1.2 Leadership process is similar in effect to that of the secret chemical that turns the insect pupa into a butterfly with all the beauty that was the pupa’s potential. Leadership, then, transforms potential into reality. Tiny firms develop into giant corporations with the help of leaders. Leadership is the act that identifies, develops, and uses the potential that is in an organisation and its people.

2.0 The nature of Leadership

2.1 Leadership is an important part of management, but not all of it. Managers are rewired to plan and organise, but the primary role of a leader is to influence others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. This means that strong leaders may be weak managers if their poor planning causes their group to move in wrong directions. Though they can get their group going, they just cannot get it going in directions that best serve organisational objectives.

2.2 Other combinations are also possible. A person can be a weak leader and still be a relatively effective manager, especially if one happens to be managing people who clearly understand their jobs and have strong drives to work. This set of circumstances is less likely, and therefore we expect excellent managers to have reasonably high leadership ability. Fortunately, this ability can be acquired through management training and work experience.

3.0 Leadership behaviour:

3.1 People have been concerned about the nature of leadership since the beginning of history. Early research tried to identify the traits that differed between leaders and non leaders or between successful and unsuccessful leaders. Some studies focused on personality factors like intelligence, ambition and aggressiveness, others examined physical characteristics like height, build, and attractiveness. In general, no consistent set of traits that are stable across groups and tasks has emerged despite continued attempts.

3.2 Much of the recent emphasis has shifted away from traits and moved towards identifying leadership behaviours. In this view, successful leadership depends on appropriate behaviours, skills and actions and not on personal traits. This is highly significant, since behaviours can be learned and changed, while traits are relatively fixed. The three different types of skills leaders use are technical, human, and conceptual. Although these skills are interrelated in practice, they can be considered separately.

3.3 Technical skills refer to a person’s knowledge ability in any type of process or technique. Examples are the skills learned by accountants, engineers etc. These skills are the distinguishing feature of job performance at the operating level, but as employees are promoted to leadership responsibilities, their technical skills become proportionately less important. They increasingly depend on the technical skills of their subordinates and in many cases have never practiced some of the technical skills that they supervise.

3.4 Human skill is the ability to work effectively with people and to build teamwork. No leader at any organisational level escapes the requirement for effective human skill. It is a major part of leadership behaviour .

3.5 Conceptual skill is the ability to think in terms of models, frameworks and broad relationships such as long-range plans. It becomes necessary in higher managerial jobs. Conceptual skills deal with ideas, while human skill concerns people and technical skills involve things.

3.6 Analysis of leadership skills helps to explain why outstanding department heads sometimes make poor vice presidents. They may not be using the proper mixture of skills required for the higher level job, particularly additional conceptual skill.

4.0 Situational aspects

4.1 Successful leadership requires behaviour that unites and stimulates followers towards defined objectives in specific situations. All three elements-leader, followers and situation- are variables that affect each other in determining appropriate leadership behaviour.

4.1.1 The interdependence of leader, follower and situation is illustrated by hard boiled superintendent who is still managing the way he was twenty years ago. He thinks that leadership resides in him alone, untouched by outside influences. He fails to realize that as his people and environment change, he needs to change his leadership style. Though his style of leadership was acceptable twenty years ago, it is not acceptable today.

4.1.2 It is evident that leadership is situational. In one situation, action A may be the best choice, but in the next situation action B would be the ideal choice. There can be no standard pattern among leaders since this would suppress creativity and innovations. Sometimes leaders must resist the temptation to be visible in a situation. Even though good leadership involves a set of behaviours, it should not be confused with mere activity when it is not needed. Aggressiveness and constant interaction with others will not guarantee good leadership. At times the appropriate leadership action is to stay in the background keeping pressures off the group to keep quiet so that others may talk, to be calm in times of uproar, to hesitate and to delay decisions. At other times a leader must be more directive and controlling.

5.0 Leaders as followers

5.1 With few exceptions, leaders are also followers. They nearly report to someone else. Leaders must be able to wear both hats gracefully, to be able to relate both upward and downward. They need validation from higher authority just as much as they need support from followers. In formal organisations of several levels, the ability to follow is one of the first requirements for good leadership. It is the key that unlocks the door to leadership opportunities and keeps the leader in balance with the rest of the organisation.

What is Motivation?

Motivation

1.0 Objective: To explain the concept of motivation, the different theories of motivation, the types of motivation and state how to use motivation as a managerial tool.

1.1 Nearly all the conscious behavior of human being is motivated. The internal needs and drives lead to tensions, which in turn result into actions. The need for food results into hunger and hence a person is motivated to eat.

1.2 A manager requires creating and maintaining an environment in which individuals work together in groups towards the accomplishment of common objectives. A manager cannot do a job without knowing what motivates people. The building of motivating factors into organisational roles, the staffing of these roles and the entire process of leading people must be built on knowledge of motivation. It is necessary to remember that level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times. Today in the increasingly competitive environment maintaining a highly motivated workforce is the most challenging task. The art of motivation starts by learning how to influence the behavior of the individual. This understanding helps to achieve both, the individual as well as organisational objectives.

1.3 Motivation is a powerful tool in the hands of leaders. It can persuade convince and propel. People to act.

2.0 WHAT IS MOTIVATION?

2.1 It is a general tendency to believe that motivation is a personal trait. Some people have it and the others don’t. In practice, some are labeled to be lazy because they do not display an outward sign of motivation. However, individuals differ in their basic motivational drives. It also depends upon their areas of interest. The concept of motivation is situational and its level varies between different individuals and at different times. If you understand what motivates people, you have at your command the most powerful tool for dealing with them.

3.0 DEFINING MOTIVATION

3.1 Motivation is to inspire people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce best results. It is the will to act. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organisational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need.

3.2 Motivation is getting somebody to do something because they want to do it. It was once assumed that motivation had to be injected from outside, but it is now understood that everyone is motivated by several differing forces.

3.3 Motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner.

3.4 To motivate others is the most important of management tasks. It comprises the abilities to communicate, to set an example, to challenge, to encourage, to obtain feedback, to involve, to delegate, to develop and train, to inform, to brief and to provide a just reward.

4.0

process of motivation

4.1 In the initiation a person starts feeling lacknesses. There is an arousal of need so urgent, that the bearer has to venture in search to satisfy it. This leads to creation of tension, which urges the person to forget everything else and cater to the aroused need first. This tension also creates drives and attitudes regarding the type of satisfaction that is desired. This leads a person to venture into the search of information. This ultimately leads to evaluation of alternatives where the best alternative is chosen. After choosing the alternative, an action is taken. Because of the performance of the activity satisfaction is achieved which than relieves the tension in the individual.

5.0 Theories of Motivation

5.1 Contribution of Robert Owen :

5.1.1 Though Owen is considered to be paternalistic in his view, his contribution is of a considerable significance in the theories of Motivation. During the early years of the nineteenth century, Owen’s textile mill at New Lanark in Scotland was the scene of some novel ways of treating people. His view was that people were similar to machines. A machine that is looked after properly, cared for and maintained well, performs efficiently, reliably and lastingly, similarly people are likely to be more efficient if they are taken care of. Robert Owen practiced what he preached and introduced such things as employee housing and company shop. His ideas on this and other matters were considered to be too revolutionary for that time.
5.2 Jeremy Bentham’s “The Carrot and the Stick Approach” :

5.2.1 Possibly the essence of the traditional view of people at work can be best appreciated by a brief look at the work of this English philosopher, whose ideas were also developed in the early years of the Industrial Revolution, around 1800. Bentham’s view was that all people are self-interested and are motivated by the desire to avoid pain and find pleasure. Any worker will work only if the reward is big enough, or the punishment sufficiently unpleasant. This view – the ‘carrot and stick’ approach – was built into the philosophies of the age and is still to be found, especially in the older, more traditional sectors of industry.

5.2.2 The various leading theories of motivation and motivators seldom make reference to the carrot and the stick. This metaphor relates, of course, to the use of rewards and penalties in order to induce desired behavior. It comes from the old story that to make a donkey move, one must put a carrot in front of him or dab him with a stick from behind. Despite all the research on the theories of motivation, reward and punishment are still considered strong motivators. For centuries, however, they were too often thought of as the only forces that could motivate people.

5.2.3 At the same time, in all theories of motivation, the inducements of some kind of ‘carrot’ are recognized. Often this is money in the form of pay or bonuses. Even though money is not the only motivating force, it has been and will continue to be an important one. The trouble with the money ‘carrot’ approach is that too often everyone gets a carrot, regardless of performance through such practices as salary increase and promotion by seniority, automatic ‘merit’ increases, and executive bonuses not based on individual manager performance. It is as simple as this: If a person put a donkey in a pen full of carrots and then stood outside with a carrot, would the donkey be encouraged to come out of the pen?

What is Team Building?

Team Building

1.0 Objective: At the end of the session, the trainee should be able to state the characteristics of a good team, distinguish the various types of teams and list the guidelines to build a good team.

2.0 The Basic Of “Teams
2.1 A team is a living, constantly changing and a dynamic force in which a number of people come together to work. The members of the team, discuss their objectives, assess ideas, make decisions and work towards their targets together. Teams out perform individuals acting alone, especially so when the performance requires multiple skills, judgments and experience. All the successful teams are characterized by the same fundamental features : strong and effective leadership, the establishment of precise objectives, taking informed decisions, the ability to act quickly so as to carry forward these decisions, communicating freely, developing the necessary skills and techniques to fulfill the assigned tasks.
2.2 The best way to understand teams is to look at their internal behavior. Their own stories reveal their accomplishments, skills, emotions, commitment and logical presentation. It is, however, the result of pursuing a demanding performance challenge.
2.3 The team is a basic unit of performance for most organisations. Successful team experiences are memorable because of both-what is accomplished and what each member learns in the process. Teams need to be flexible and responsive to changing events and demands, i.e. the demand of merging individual accountability with mutual accountability.

Hence :
2.4 A team is a small number of people with complementary skills, who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
Team Building
2.5 Successful teams can be formed by 2 to 22 or even more people, but more important than size is the shape, the pattern and the spirit of the team is due to which the members settle to perform their given tasks. The tasks that are to be performed by teams are basically categorized into three types.
2.6 Repetitive tasks: which require the members to assume a different fixed roles. These tasks are usually familiar work performance and can be fulfilled independently.
2.7 Projects: which require creative input from members, though working in different roles. The major attribute is to work in unison and generate new products.
2.8 Partners: that demands constant and creative input and establishment of new work milestones. This style of working is more popular with senior levels of management.

3.0 Understanding Teams

1. Teams are created when the performance demanded is challenging. The hunger for performance is the basic motivator.
2. A disciplined outlook is necessary. Basics include size, purpose, goals, skills, approach and accountability for successful application.
3. Organisations are divided into teams and sub–teams, the hierarchy of which ultimately leads to goal achievement.
4. Teams at the top are the most difficult and complex in nature.
5. There is a preference for group accountability over individual accountability by the people in the organisation.
6. Companies with strong performance standards seem to spawn more “real teams” than companies that promote teams per se.
7. Hierarchy and teams go together almost as well as teams and performance.
8. Integration of performance and learning are inseparable part of team work.
9. Organisational leaders can foster team performance best by building a strong performance ethic rather than by establishing a team – promoting environment alone.
10. Biases do exist in teams.

4.0 BECOMING THE “REAL TEAM”

The performance of a team depends upon the type of binding that exists between the group members. A working group relies primarily on the individual contributions of its members for group performance. A team striving for a magnified impact that is incremental to what its members could achieve in their individual roles, forms gradually over a period of time resulting into cohesiveness.
4.1 Working groups
In such groups there are no significant incremental performance needs that would germinate the opportunity of turning this groups into a productive and efficient team. In such groups, the members interact only to share information, discuss practices and to make decisions to help each individual perform effectively in his or her area of responsibility. It is just a small group that works together for getting the work done.
4.2 Pseudo-teams.
In this type of group, though there exists a significant incremental performance needs and opportunity, there is no focus on collective performance. There is no interest in a common purpose or set of performance goals, though they work in a group. Pseudo-teams are the weakest of all groups in terms of performance impact. Their contribution towards the company performance is less because the individual interest of each member detracts from each other. The sum of the whole is less than the potential of the individual parts.
4.3 Potential teams
In such types of groups there is a considerable incremental performance need and the members really try to improve their performance impact. However, there is more need of clarity of purpose, goals and working approach. It has not yet established collective accountability. Here the team approach starts making sense and performance impact becomes high. The most worthwhile performance gain comes in between the potential teams and real teams. Any movement pursued in this direction is worth trying.

4.4 Real teams
These are the teams with small number of people having complementary skills, who are equally committed to a common purpose, goals and work approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Real teams are basic unit of performance.
4.5 High – performance team Team effectiveness
This group meets all the conditions of real teams and also has members deeply committed to one another’s personal growth and success. This commitment is the soul of the group. They out – perform all other like teams. It is a powerful possibility and an excellent model for all “Real” and “Potential” teams.

Unlike teams, working groups rely on the sum of “individual bests” for their performance. Pseudo-teams do not take any risks and hence, remain where they are, potential teams take the risk to climb the curve and face obstacles and they turn into ‘Real teams’ and ‘High performing teams’.

5.0 Building Team Performance

As such there is no guaranteed recipe for building team performance. Yet there are a variety of common approaches that can help potential teams take the necessary risk to grow in performance. To build up high performance, the following of certain guidelines comes in handy.
5.1 Establishing urgency and a sense of direction
All team members need to believe that the team has urgent and worthwhile purposes. Besides, performance expectations from team members also should be clear. The members of the team need to realize that the task they are performing is important, that they are a part of decisive accomplishment. The direction to be adopted for achievement should be clear.
5.2 The selection of the members should be on the basis of skills and not personality.
Teams need complementary skills to perform the job. For effective performance, a mix of three different categories is helpful.
-> Technical and functional skills.
-> Problem solving skills
-> Interpersonal skills
A right set of people is needed at the right place and on the right time. Selection of team members is not only an issue for task forces and special project teams, but also ongoing groups, too often there is a presumption that existing job status automatically warrants team membership. Hence, while selection, the job profile of the individual is not the only basis but the necessary skill for job performance.
5.3 More attention needs to be paid to first meetings and actions.
Initial impression goes a long way. When the potential teams gather around for the first time, members alertly monitor the signals given by others to confirm, suspend or dispel going-in assumptions and concerns. First meetings usually are not the first time the people in them have ever met as a group. They are not necessarily limited to a single event. Moreover, for on going groups, first meetings usually are not the first time the people in them have ever met as a group. But too many potential teams fail to understand the importance of “first meetings” and instead allow existing habits and operating styles to dominate, including an overemphasis on individual instead of mutual accountability.
5.4 The rules regarding the clarity of behavior sets a code of conduct.
All real teams develop rules of conduct to help them achieve their purpose and performance goals. Rules are necessary for focus, openness, commitment and trust. The most critical rules may pertain to attendance, confidentiality, contributions, constructive confrontation and end-product orientation.
5.5 Few immediate performance-oriented tasks and goals bring team spirit.
Most teams prepare immediate small tasks and performance oriented events that bring them together. Potential teams can set such events in motion by immediately establishing a few challenging yet achievable goals that can be reached early on. Significantly, the events generated by such stretch goals do not have to be successes. The focus is on achieving a spirit of being together.