Behavioral & Attitudinal Change | Behavior And Attitude

Behavioral & Attitudinal Change | Behavior And Attitude

Behavioral & Attitudinal Change | Behavior And Attitude

1.0 INTRODUCTION

There are rapid changes taking place in telecommunication field. Every day we hear new inventions and induction of new services. With these changes, we ought to face new competitions and challenges. We have to be prepared to meet these challenges to become competent and successful. For this we need to bring positive changes in our organisation.

The ‘change’ in the organisation, for its survival and growth can be brought by induction of changes in the following fields.
Changes in Technology, equipment & material,
Changes in knowledge and skills of people,
Changes “in people” by bringing change in Behavior and Attitudes of people,
Overall change in Organisational culture.

1.1 Our strength & Achievements

• The Telecom network in our country has grown rapidly over the last 10-15 years, keeping pace with the world’s latest technologies.
• Our revenues have also grown and sufficient funds were available so far, for our growth.
• We have acquired the latest of telecom technologies.
• We have the best of the technical manpower and latest expertise.
• We are very quick in acquiring latest technical knowledge and skills.
• We have invaluable assets in the form of lands, buildings, huge infrastructures and equipment.

1.1 Our Weaknesses

One OF OUR WEAKNESSES in which we need to pay special attention is “Behaviour & Attitude” of all of us, at all levels, our behaviour& attitude towards our customers as well as interpersonal behaviour among the various cadres of employees.

In other words we need to bring overall change in organisational culture
Unlike equipment the people can not be changed (replaced) so easily, i.e. organisational change can not be brought by changing(replacing)people, but by bringing Change ‘in’ people We need to bring positive changes ‘in’ the people.

In this course we will discuss the process of Behavioral and Attitudinal training to bring change ‘in’ the people of the organisation.

Behavior And Attitude

2.0 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

• The DOT is one of the oldest departments of the Government of India with a history of more than 120 years.
• The department has an employee force of about 4 lakhs.
• The operation area of the Department is spread over the whole of the country covering majority (about 60%) of the villages and most of the block head quarters.

Department of Telecommunications has been the only Telecom service provider in the country till recently. This department under the Central Government has developed its own unique culture over the period of time. Being a Government department, its people have so far wielded a certain kind of control and authority over the service of telecom in the country. This has generated a definite behaviour and specific attitudes in the employees working at different levels, maintaining the same since many years. Their well-known characteristic is that of controller of scarce resources. It is the organisational culture in any Government department.
The reasons behind this organisational behavior are as follows:

The Telecom technologies and equipment were costly and scarce earlier. The uses of the telecom services were also restricted. Costs of telecom services were very high. The consumers of telecom services were those people who could afford them, such as Government offices, Business people, rich urban people and other business related service sectors. Behavior And Attitude

The role of a telecom employee in that era was that of a controller, supplier, distributor, and maintainer of a scarce resource or service which was in short supply and high demand. Therefore there was no need for marketing, no sale skills were required and no need felt for the promotion or publicity of any services There was more demand than the supply and the gap was very high.

In that situation the governmental authoritative control was necessary. Our officers and staff also acquired the legacy of governmental authority. Although department has consistently tried to inculcate in its employees the balanced attitude of a service department serving its subscriber with sincerity, humbleness and care of customer with honesty, in the absence of competition, we have developed attitudes of a monopolistic and authoritative department. Our customers did not have any other options but to follow the departmental procedures and bear the behaviour and attitude of our employees.
No longer is the situation now! In the last 5-6 years the entire scenario has changed. Let us see why and what we need to do here!

2.1 TELECOM REVOLUTION

Recently in past 10-15 years, there have been many revolutions in the field of telecom and computer technologies, which have brought in the market a large number of new equipment of larger capacities with more and more varieties of telecom services. The installation and commissioning of the equipment has become easier and faster. The costs of Equipment, such as Switching and Transmission systems, have also gone down drastically with the availability of higher capacity systems, resulting in greater and easier availability of telecom services in the telecom network. This has opened a tremendous scope for business opportunities in the field of telecom. Behavior And Attitude

2.2 PRIVATISATION AND COMPETITION

Along with the revolution in manufacturing and supply of telecom equipment came the era of privatization of telecom services world over.

The Government of India has changed its policies to permit entry of private operators to meet the increasing demands and to bring healthy competition in telecom business.

The entry of Private Operators in telecom services has been allowed since 1994.
The private companies are bringing the competition in the form of
Newer technologies, newer services.
Better and advanced planning,
Financial resources and business attitudes, and
Most IMPORTANT of all, a better-visible and recognizable customer care to attract more and more customers towards them to expand their business.

7.2.1 THE NEED FOR BRINGING CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES OF PEOPLE.

• The above changes in the environment, in and around our department, has made it necessary for all of us to think and undergo changes to meet the new challenges, which we are facing. These changes in our department are being brought by induction of new technologies, new equipment, and new skills.
• But most important of all is bringing change in the behaviour and attitude of the people to cope up with the competitions posed in the new environment.
• This is necessary because the market forces would affect our customer base and us.
• Losing our old customers and inability to attract the prospective customers would affect our profitability, which may in turn affect our pay and allowances.

What is Positive Thinking? | Positive Attitude

Positive Thinking | Positive Attitude

1.0 Feed Your Mind

Just as the body needs good food every day, mind needs good thoughts every day. The key words in the preceding sentence are good food and good thoughts. If we feed our body with junk food and our mind with bad thoughts, we will have both a sick body and a sick mind. We need to feed our mind with the pure and the positive to stay on track.

1.1 Education is a Reservoir

Continuous positive education leads to positive thinking.

1.2 Positive thinkers are like athletes who, through practice, build an inner reservoir of stamina that they draw on during competition. If they don’t practice, they have nothing to draw on.

Similarly, positive thinkers regularly build a reserve of positive attitudes by constantly feeding their mind on the pure, the powerful and the positive on a daily basis they realize that we are all going to be faced with the negative and if we have the reserve of positive attitudes we will be able to overcome it; otherwise the negative will prevail.

Positive thinkers are not fools and they are not going through life with blinders. They are winners who recognize their limitations, but focus on their strengths. Losers, on the other hand, recognize their strengths but focus on their weaknesses.

1.3  IF YOU THINK

If you think you are beaten, you are.

If you think you dare not, you don’t!

If you like to win, but think you can’t,

It’s almost a cinch you won’t.

 

If you think you’ll loss, you’re lost;

For out in the world we find

Success begins with a fellow’s will;

It’s all in the state of mind.

 

If you think you are outclassed, you are,

You’ve got to think high to rise,

You’ve got to be sure of yourself before

You can even win a prize.

Life’s battles don’t always go

To the stronger and faster man,

But sooner or later the man who wins

Is the man who thinks he can.

 positive thinking

2.0 On the surface, attitude is the way you communicate your mood to others. When you are optimistic and anticipate successful encounters, you transmit a positive attitude and people usually respond favourably. When you are pessimistic and expect the worst; your attitude is often negative, and people tend to avoid you. Inside are head, where it all starts, attitude is a mind-set. It is the way you look at things mentally.

Think of attitude as your mental focus on the outside world. Like using a camera, you can focus or set your mind on what appeals to you. You can see situations as either opportunities or failures; a cold winter day as either beautiful or ugly; a departmental meeting is as interesting or boring. Perception – the complicated process of viewing and interpreting your environment – is a mental phenomenon. It is within your power to concentrate on selected aspects of your environment and ignore others. Quite simply, you take the picture of life you want to take.

Emphasizing the positive and diffusing the negative is like using a magnifying glass. You can place the glass over good news and feel better, or you can magnify bad news and make yourself miserable. Magnifying situations can become a habit. If you continually focus on difficult situations, the result will be exaggerated distortions of problems. A better approach might be to imagine you have binoculars. Use the magnifying end to view positive things, and reverse them (using the other end) whenever you encounter negative elements to make them appear smaller. Once you are able to alter your imagery to high light the positive you are on the right road.

2.1 So what is a positive attitude?

A positive attitude is the outward manifestation of a mind that dwells primarily on positive matters. It is a mind-set tipped in favour of creative activity rather than boredom, joy over sadness, hope over futility. A positive attitude is that state of mind which can be maintained only through conscious effort. When something jam one’s mental focus in a negative direction, those who are positive know that in order to bounce back adjustments must be made!

2.2 HOW DO YOU RECOGNIZE PEOPLE WITH A POSITIVE ATTITUDE?

Just as the absence of ill health does not equal good health, in the same way the absence of negativity does not make person positive

People with positive attitudes have certain personality traits that are easy to recognize. They are caring, confident, patient and humble. They have high expectations of themselves and others. They anticipate positive outcomes.

A person with a positive attitude is like a fruit of all seasons. He is always welcome.

2.3 THE BENEFITS OF A POSITIVE ATTITUDE Positive Thinking

There are many advantages to having a positive attitude. The advantages are easy to see. But what is easy to see is also easy to miss!

2.4 A positive attitude:

Benefits for you:

 Makes a pleasing personality
 Is energizing
 Increases your enjoyment of life
 Inspires others around you
 Helps you become a contributing member of the society and an asset to your country

2.5 And for the organisation:

 Increases productivity
 Fosters teamwork
 Solves problems
 Improves quality
 Makes for a congenial atmosphere
 Breeds loyalty
 Increases profits
 Fosters better relationships with employers, employees and customers
 Reduces stress.

3.0 Maintaining a Positive Attitude: Ten Strategies

Have a positive attitude.”

How many times have we heard that one? This challenge, of course, does not pertain exclusively to chronic illness, but to any time when things do not go as we wish. But in the case of ongoing illness, seeing the positive presents a continuous struggle.

Yet our moods are not perfectly correlated with our physical state. Most likely we can all recall times that despite much pain or fatigue, we were able to cope and even achieve high spirits. Perhaps the weather was perfect, good friends visited, we just accomplished something or helped somebody, making us feel good about ourselves. Other times, depression seems to take hold even when our physical discomfort is at a manageable level. Why is this? Answering this question is the key to finding optimism. Sometimes it seems we have fallen and the waves continue to crash on our heads, as we fight to rise, only to be knocked down yet again. But that same ocean sometimes allows us to find a wave we can ride smoothly to the shore.

What is Effective Communication?

Effective Communication

1.0 Introduction

Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another. It is a way of reaching others with ideas, facts, thoughts, feelings, and values. It always involves atleast two people – a sender and a receiver. Communication is what the receiver understands and not what the sender says.
Organisations cannot exist without communication. If there is no communication, employees cannot know what their coworkers are doing, management cannot receive information inputs, and supervisors cannot give instructions. Coordination of work is impossible, and the organisation will collapse for lack of it. Cooperation also becomes impossible, because people cannot communicate their needs and feelings to others. We can say with confidence that every act of communication influences the organisation in some way.
When communication is effective, it tends to encourage better performance and job satisfaction. People understand their jobs better and feel more involved in them. One of the main hindrances for the successful performance of a group or organisation is lack of effective communication. Because, individuals spend nearly 70% of their working hours communicating, writing, reading, speaking and listening. So communication skill is one of the essential qualities required for every individual, whether in a group, work place, family or in any situation. It is worth remembering, “Communication can make or break a relationship”. As such, communication skill is a personality trait to be developed by all. Like other social skills, communication skills can be taught and learned, and they improve with practice.
Before going into the details of communication skills., we should discuss communication: – its definition, objectives, media, principles, types, barriers etc.

Effective Communication

1.1I. Definitions:

Few of the important definitions of Communication given by Management experts are:

• Communication is the interchange of thoughts or information to bring about mutual understanding and confidence of good human relations. (American Society of Training Directors)
• Communication is an exchange of. facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons. (Rumania and Summer)
• Communication means Understanding. (C.G Brown)
The dictionary defines communication as a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behaviour.
Skill is defined as a learned power of doing something competently and something that is a developed aptitude or ability. Put the two together and it is obvious good communication skills can be learned and that those skills can be used to effectively deliver your message. Human communication is purposive and so understanding is vital in the process of communication.

Any communication involves four essential elements, viz.

  • The message
  • The source
  • The receiver
  • The channel

2.0 THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

The process of communication involves six stages. The first three stages occurring at the sender’s end and the remaining three at the receiver’s end.

2.1 AT SENDER’S END

IDEATION: Step 1 is to develop an idea that the sender wishes to transmit. This is the key step, because unless there is a worthwhile message, all the other steps are somewhat useless. This step is represented by the sign, sometimes seen in an office, that reads, “Be sure brain is engaged before putting mouth in gear.”.

ENCODING: Step 2 is to encode the idea into suitable words, charts or symbol for transmission. At this point the sender determines the method of transmission, so that the words and symbols may be organised in suitable fashion for the type of transmission.

TRANSMISSION: When the message is fully developed, step 3 is to transmit it by the method chosen, such as by memo, phone call or personal visit. Senders also choose certain channels, such as bypassing or not bypassing the superintendent and they communicate with careful timing. Today may not be the right day to talk to one’s manager about that pay raise. Senders also try to keep their communication channel free of barriers, or interference, so that their messages have a chance to reach the receivers and hold their attention.

2.2 AT RECEIVER’S END

RECEIVING: The encoded message sent by the sender is received by the receiver, who tune to receive the message. If the receiver does not function, the message is lost.

DECODING: Step 5 is to decode the message so that it can be understood. The receiver tries to get the meaning or understand from the symbols by the sender.

ACTION: The receiver gets the message and acts or responds in some way.

For effective communication mutual cooperation between the sender and receiver is essential. It is desirable that the receiver pays proper attention, gives feedback or response to the sender so that two-way communication is established. For effective communication, sharing of ideas or thoughts is a necessary condition, which can be achieved only through participation.

3.0 Rule of FIVE for Effective Communication

When communicating any message, one should ensure for effective communication that the receiver:

1) Receives the message
2) Understands the message
3) Accepts the message
4) Uses the message and information in the message
5) Sends feedback to the sender

4.0 Objectives of communication:

Communication can be used for any one or more of the following objectives:
• Information • Advice • Order
• Suggestion • Persuasion • Education
• Warning • Raising morale • Motivation

The main goals of communication are to build interpersonal relationship and to influence others.

5.0 Media of communication:

Communication is possible through a vast variety of media. For communication to be effective, the communicator has to be very careful and judicious in the choice of media, which will depend on the factors like the urgency of the message, the time available, the expenditure involved and the intellectual and emotional level of the receiver. Available media of communication can be broadly classified into six groups:

I. Written communication

II. Oral communication

III. Face-to-Face communication

IV. Visual communication

V. Audio-visual communication

VI. Silence

5.1 Written communication includes letters, circulars, memos, telegrams, reports, minutes, forms and questionnaires, manuals etc.

Merits and limitations of written communication.

Merits
It is accurate and precise.

It can be repeatedly referred to.

It is a permanent record.

Transactional Analysis: Managerial Effectiveness

Transactional Analysis

Change Management And Organization Development

1.1       All organisations are made up of people and human behaviour, though unpredictable can be understood more precisely with the knowledge of modern psychotherapy. The people come together and interact with one another in order to solve problems, collect information, discuss progress, give instructions and set goals. People also come together for the pleasure of company of each others. Most of the time of executives/ managers when they are on the job, is spent of instruction to the employees of their own concern or public if their department has public dealings.

1.2       Transactional analysis will enable you to understand your subordinate’s moods and feelings while exchanging the communication. Manipulation of the transaction will enable you to control the behaviour of your subordinates. The most important of all is that you can analyze your own behaviour with the help of this technique.

  • Meaning of Transactional Analysis

2.1    Throughout the history, one impression of human nature has been consistent; that man has multiple nature. It is often said that man has a dual nature. Man can aspire and achieve goodness; which is evident from long human history. Goodness can be in the form of wisdom, justice and love according to great thinkers of the world. The goodness or good virtues have always been at war with evils, higher nature with lower nature and so on. In modern age, transactional analysis is used for the most easily understandable technique of analyzing human behaviour.

2.2       Any inter-personnel communication between two persons is termed as transaction. In the inter personal communication there is exchange of words and ideas. What one person speaks to the other, is known as “Transactional Response”. Behavioural stimulus can take the shape of speech, posture, gesture of action and when another person reacts to this stimulus, it is termed as “Transactional Response”. Behavioural response when received in response to a stimulus; completes a transaction. But the response itself may serve as a stimulus for the initiation of interaction and may evoke another response. Thus in this manner human interaction although appearing as a continuous affair can easily be seen as series of such stimulus-response transactions. When two parties are involved, there is social transaction through interaction of the people. The study of these social transactions between people is called transactional analysis. In other words transactional analysis is basically concerned with analysis of behavioural dynamic of the personalities.

3.1    Human behaviour is multifarious. In a human being, there appear to be many small ‘Selves’ playing different roles at different time and in different roles in different situations. It is this fact, perhaps which makes human behaviour unpredictable, inconsistent, and irrational. Reaction to a given set of conditions depends on the momentary ‘ state of mind’. For example, a JTO is asked to stay beyond his working hours to complete some statement. The JTO had an appointment with one of his relatives for dinner immediately after working hours and, hence, his reaction in this condition may vary. He jumps, hearing this and shouts “You are unfair, I cannot stay and spoil my plan because of your whim. I am not going to stay as I have, already, an appointment with my relative”. “You may ask some one else to complete the statement, or if you agree, I can come early tomorrow morning to complete the work in time’.

These three statements of the JTO show three distinct levels of his mood. The pattern of behaviour exhibited by the JTO through his actions and responses is the casting of his mood. Where did this mood come from? It is, in fact, the product of an ‘ego-state’ of a person. It is the inherent ego-state of a person which leads the mental and physical behaviour of a person at any moment.

3.2       An EGO-STATE is defined as a consistent pattern of thinking, feeling and emotions which is source for human behaviour. There are three ego-states in every person. Each behavioural stimulus or response originates from one of these three distinct states.

Ego States and their Causation

3.3    In the transactional analysis, (TA), these three states are written with capital P, A and C. Thus each of us, has a parent, adult and child within us and may react from any one of these personality states at a given time. During a transaction one can change instantly from one state to another without a warning.

3.4       When one person converses with a second person, the first person is in a distinct ‘ego-state’ and can direct his or her message to any one of the three ‘ego-states’ but the second person may or may not respond from the same ego state from which the first person would have expected of him. Consequently the first step in transactional analysis is to recognize ‘ego-state’ and to know what their typical features are and where do they come from and acquire skill to distinguish one from the other when one sees them in operation.

3.5       Parent (P) Ego State:

A parent ego state consists of that body of data, recorded and stored in the brain, which comes from one’s observations about the way his/her parents and elders behaved. It deals with opinion, values, instructions and prescriptions, which a child has received from his/her elders. What the child observes in early stage of his life is recorded in his mind like permanent tape record. According to western thought, up to early five year period of life of a child is very important period for building of this ‘ego state’. According to Hindu concept of Sanskar, this period extends up to 12 years. Every thing the child has seen his parents doing and every thing he heard them saying, is recorded in his/her parent store. The data in ‘Parent’ was taken in and recorded straight without editing. The little child due to his dependency and his inability to construct meanings with words made it impossible for him to modify, correct or explain. Therefore, if the parents were hostile and consistently fighting each other, a fight was recorded with terror produced by seeing the parents fighting on whom the child was dependent. The child was exposed nearly every possible attitude and admonition of his parents up to five years of his life and hence forth further parental communications are essentially a reinforcement, of what has already been recorded.

3.6    Critical and Nurturing Parent Personalities.

Critical and Nurturing Parent Personalities

Time Management: Importance of Time Managements

Time Management

‘Time and tide waits for none’ – “Time is precious than gold”

  1. Time management plays a vital role in every sphere of life in the universe. We are familiar with the proverbs ‘Time and tide waits for none’, “Time is precious than gold”. So the time is the most precious resource amongst all the resources known to mankind. Its supply is totally inelastic and it is totally irreplaceable. We should utilize our time with utmost care and should reduce unproductive demand on our time. We should stretch time available into largest possible segment of time? Dr. Fredrick Teylor, the founder of the Scientific Management observes- “Most of us can do three or four times as such as we ordinarily do without lengthening day’s end. Even if we have apparently reached our highest level of effectiveness, it is usually possible to improve by a little extra effort”. Really busy and active persons have enough time. “Time = Life, waste your time and waste your life, or master your time and master your life” said, Alan Lakein. The more time you waste, there is little left in your life. So time management is crucial to realize your dreams and fulfill your ambitions in your life. Time management is nothing but having time for everything and doing everything in time. Henry Ford, the busiest man in the world observed. “The busy man has time for everything”.

2.1 Time has the following typical characteristics

  • Time is a unique resource
  • It is available in continuous stream. It is never absent.
  • We are forced to spend it. And what is lost is lost forever.
  • There is no substitute for time.
    • It is highly inelastic.
    • It cannot be stored or accumulated.
    • It cannot be stopped or turned off/on like a machine.
    • It has got the healing effect.
    • Most critical resource, equitably distributed, but
    • Most inequitably utilized.
    • Available for all, round the clock.
    • “TIME” indeed is every-where, the world around. It is both as perpetual movement and impulses. According to Peter Drucker, “Time is the scarcest resource and unless it is managed, nothing else can be managed”.

     

    • Concentrate on results, not on being busy

    Many people spend their days in a frenzy of activity, but achieve very little because they are not concentrating on the right things.

            THE 80: 20 RULE

    This is neatly summed up in the Pareto Principle, or the “80:20 Rule”. This states that typically 80% of unfocussed effort generates only 20% of results. The remaining 80% of results are achieved with only 20% of the effort.

     Time Management

    • Some myths in Time management

      • Research into various concepts of time and their managerial implications has indicated the following myths related to time managerial effectiveness.

     

    • Decision: The higher the level at which a decision is made, the better it is. A JTO when promoted to the post of SDE, if tries to continue to make decisions like J.T.O he will fail. The decisions required for supervision of technicians, L/M and other subordinate cadres should be made by the J.T.O working under an SDE, but not by an SDE himself.

     

    3.3       Delay decision: Delay improves the quality of decision. Many managers willfully delay decision because more information may be needed. The longer a decision is delayed, the more difficult it becomes to make decision. 20% of the total facts available perhaps is sufficient for getting 60% of the outcome (Pareto Principle)

    3.4       Delegation: Delegate the powers to accomplish work without delay. In the end, effective delegation saves time, but initially it takes times for planning what should be delegated and also training staff to accept responsibilities.

     

    • Efficiency: The most efficient manger is the one who is most effective.

                 Efficiency depends upon time when the task to be accomplished is time bound.

                                   

    3.6       Hard work: The harder one works, the more he gets done, without proper planning for time investment, the hard worker winds up in the end, having done things in the least effective way.

     

    3.7       Omnipotence: By doing it yourself, tasks are accomplished faster and better. The fallacy in this reasoning is that by refusing to delegate the task to some one and not educating him to do things the right way, the manager has to do work himself since no none has learned how to do the work.

     

    3.8       Over worked executive: Many executives get illusion of indispensability along with omnipotence. They think that the organisation could not survive without their constant attention. They do a good job as the first line supervisors. Their failure to delegate effectively, forces everyone to come to them for answers to question even on smallest detail. This is another myth. Many officers complain  that they are not deputed for training, as their superiors believe that their work could not be managed in their absence.

     

    3.9       Open Door: Manager’s door be opened to those subordinates who need help. This does not mean that door should remain physically opened at all times. The always-available manager or administrator finds it impossible to do his own work, to think for his own objectives and priorities or concentrate on getting his own tasks accomplished. He finds that his time is wasted by open door policy for each and every one. An executive should plan to have specific time in which he could plan, review and think over for his own and subordinates’ targets, monitor the progress of work and improvement towards customer satisfaction.

     

    3.10    Time Saving: If we do not have a choice but to spend time at predetermined fixed rate, how can time be saved? Cutting an important conversation in the interest of meeting another dead-line may leave an outstanding problem unsolved, which may erupt in a crisis. Initiating action prematurely, without deeply pondering over the alternative course, may waste much time, effort and money in the end. It may be required at your end to furnish adequate information to (subscribers) customers regarding their complaints, so that you receive fewer calls in this regard.

Networking Devices

How many types of Networking Devices?

Answer: Networking Devices

Networks are connected by using some types of devices such as hubs, repeaters, switches, bridges,
routers and gateways. It is very important to know the basic function of these devices in order to decide upon the device that is to be used for a particular purpose.

1. Hub :

A hub works in the physical layer of the OSI model. Hub  is a non‐intelligent device, and has no decision making capability. Hub basically takes the input data from one of the ports and broadcast the information to all the other ports connected to the network.

There are two types of hub :

(i) Active hub : Active hub regenerate, concentrate and  strengthen the signals before sending them to their destinations.
(ii) Passive hub : Passive hub simple broadcast the signals.

2. Repeater :

A repeater is a device similar to the hub, but has  additional features. It also works in the physical layer. The repeaters are used in places where amplification of input signal is necessary. It regenerates the input signal, and amplifies only the desirable signal. Hence, the noise component of the signal is eliminated. It is also called as active hub.

The repeaters are useful for long distance transmission.

One common problem between the repeaters and the hubs are that only one transmission can take place on the network at a particular time. If multiple devices transmit data simultaneously, there will be data collision.

3. Switch :

A switch is an intelligent device that works in the data link layer. The term intelligent refers to the decision making capacity of the switch. It has knowledge of the MAC addresses of the ports in the network. It establishes a link between the sender and the receiver based on the MAC addresses. Simultaneous data transfer is possible in a switch. Switch does not divide bandwidth. A switch is a secure device, because it sends information only to the desired destinations, and also certain security features such as firewalls can be implemented in the switches.

4. Bridge :

A bridge is also a device which works in the data link layer, but is more primitive when compared to a switch. Initial bridges were used to connect only 2 LAN’s, but the most recent ones perform similar operation as the switches. It also works on the principle of transfer of information using the MAC addresses of the ports. When bridging is used, each time the device has to be connected to the internet. A bridge alone cannot be used to connect to the internet. It has no knowledge of the IP addresses used in the internet.

networking devices

5. Router :

Router connects two different LANs. Router works in the network layer. Route send the on the basis of IP addresses. Routers are similar to bridges but there are some additional features, which routers provide such as ability to filter messages and forward them to different location based on various criteria. Routers are used to find the best route for data packets to travel in the network. The process of finding the path is called as routing. The information about the best route is stored in the table called as routing table.

There are two types of routers :
(i) Static router : In static router, users need to specify the routing path.
(ii) Dynamic router : Dynamic router determine the routing path automatically by using
different algorithms.

6. Gateway :

A gateway is a software or hardware device is used to connect two or more networks of dissimilar types. The gateways are useful for communication between different network architecture with different protocol. Gateway is also called as protocol converter. Gateway accept the packet formatted for one protocol and convert it to a packet formatted for another protocol.

7. Network interface card (NIC) :

A network interface card (NIC) is a computer hardware component that allows a computer to connect to a network. NICs may be used for both wired and wireless connections. A NIC is also known as a network interface controller (NIC), network interface controller card, expansion card, computer circuit board, network card, LAN card, network adapter or network adapter card (NAC).

 

E‐Commerce | Advantages and disadvantages of E‐Commerce

What is E‐Commerce? What are the advantages and disadvantages of E‐Commerce?

Answer: E‐Commerce | Advantages and disadvantages of E‐Commerce

E‐commerce :

E‐commerce stands for electronic commerce. It is also known as e‐trade or e‐business.  E‐commerce is the term used to describe the selling of goods and services over the Internet. This saves time for users on both ends. The users can buy, sell, and exchange products or services via computer network. Usually the payments are made using credit cards.

Role of e‐commerce in networking : The main services provided by e‐commerce are as follows :

1. E‐mail : E‐mail is the most popular service through which we can electronically send and receive
messages anywhere in the world.
2. Video conferencing : Video conferencing is a meeting between two or more people located at different places. It is conducted through computer network. It provides an environment of normal meeting. It enables participants to see and hear each other at the same time as if they are in the same room.
3. Electronic shopping (E‐shopping) : The shopping conducted through internet is known as electronic shopping or e‐shopping. Many business organizations have their websites on the internet. These  websites are used to sell goods and services. Customers place their orders through websites and make payments using credit cards.
4. Electronic banking : A service that allows an account holder to obtain account information and manage certain banking transactions through computer network is called electronic banking or e‐banking. An electronic banking is also known as online banking or cyber‐banking.

E‐Commerce

Advantages of e‐commerce :

1. Low cost : The entire financial sector will eventually become electronic, so a sooner conversion is going to be lower on cost; thus, also lowering operational costs as no physical needs to be set up. It makes every transaction through e‐commerce payment a lot cheaper.
2. Higher profit margin, better productivity : E‐commerce also enables us to move better with higher margin for more business safety. Higher margin also means business with more control as well as flexibility. One can also save time from the e‐commerce as it is all time available. Productivity here means productivity for both companies and customers.
3. Effectiveness : Customers can easily select products from different providers without moving
around physically.
4. Instant comparison : E‐commerce also enables to compare price among several providers. In the
end, it leads us to smart shopping. People can save more money while they shop.
5. Economy benefit : E‐commerce allows us to make transaction without any needs on stores,
infrastructure investment, and other common things we find. Companies only need well built
website and customer service. Thus it is easy to start and manage a business.

Disadvantages of e‐commerce :

1. Security : Customers need to be confident and trust the provider of payment method. Sometimes,
we can be tricked. Examine on integrity and reputation of the web stores before you decide to
buy.

2. Scalability of system : A company definitely needs a well developed website to support numbers of customers at a time. If the web destination is not well enough it is better not to use it.

3. Integrity on data and system : Customers need secure access all the time. In addition to it, protection to data is also essential. Unless the transaction can provide it, we should refuse for e‐ commerce. Such sites are soft targets for hackers.

4. The “touch and feel” people : People who prefer and focus on product will not buy online. They will want to feel, try, and sit on their new couch and bed. They believe there is no guarantee of product quality online.

5. Customer service and relation problem : They sometimes forget how essential to build loyal relationship with customers. Without loyalty from customers, they will not survive the business. As there is minimum chance of direct customer to company interactions, customer loyalty is always on a check.

RAM and ROM | Dynamic and Static RAM

Differentiate RAM and ROM. Explain the Dynamic and Static RAM with their merits and demerits.

Answer: RAM and ROM

RAM (Random access memory)

  • RAM means Random access memory. It is also called as volatile memory.
  • Random access memory or RAM is a form of data storage medium that can be accessed randomly at
    any time.
  • The information stored in the RAM is easily accessed by the processor.
  • Both the read and write operations can be performed in RAM.
  • RAM memory is only used to store the temporary information.
  • The accessing speed of RAM is faster.
  • The price of RAMs are comparatively high.
  • RAM is available in the form of chip.
  • Physically size of RAM chip is larger than ROM chip.
  • The RAM is categorized into two types :

(i) Statistic RAM (SRAM). (ii) Dynamic RAM (DRAM).

ROM (Read only memory)

  • ROM Means Read only memory. It is also called as non‐volatile memory.
  • Read‐only memory or ROM is a form of data storage medium that permanently stores data on personal computers and other electronic devices.
  • The processor cannot directly access the information that is stored in the ROM.
  • The ROM memory only allows the user to read the information.
  • User cannot make any changes to the information.
  • ROM memory is used to store permanent information.
  • The accessing speed of ROM is slower as compared to RAM.
  • The price of ROMs are comparatively low.
  • ROM is available in the form of optical drivers that are made of magnetic tapes.
  • Physically size of ROM chip is smaller than RAM chip.
  • The ROM is categorized into three types :
    PROM (Programmable read only memory).
    EPROM (Erasable programmable read only memory).
    EEPROM (Electrically erasable programmable read only memory)

RAM and ROM

Advantage of static RAM :

1. Static RAMs are faster.

2. Static RAMs are less complex.

3. Static RAMs do not require refreshing operation at regular interval.

4. Static RAMs are directly used in cache memory.

Disadvantages of SRAM :

1. Static RAMs are expensive.

2. Static RAMs requires more space.

3. Static RAMs consumes more power.

Advantages of DRAM :

1. Dynamic RAMs are simple.

2. Dynamic RAMs require less space.

3. Dynamic RAMs consumes less power.

4. Dynamic RAMs are cheaper.

Disadvantages of DRAM :

1. Dynamic RAMs are slower than static RAMs in speed.

2. Dynamic RAMs also require refreshing operation after regular intervals.

3. Dynamic RAMs cannot be used where only small amount of memory is needed.

Instruction Set | Steps of CPU to execute the instructions

What do you understand by the instruction set? What is the step taken by the CPU to execute
the instructions?

Answer: Instruction Set | Steps of CPU to execute the Instructions

Instruction set :

The computer system cannot do anything on its own. They are programmed or instructed by the user. The instruction is defined as a machine language command to perform a specific task. It should be understandable by the computer system, hence it is a string of binary digits (0 and 1).

Example : It may be issued to read data from the memory, write data into the memory, etc. Generally, an instruction is used to perform a single task.

The set of instructions used to perform specific operations is called the instruction set.

Each instruction has two parts : opcode and operand.

1. Opcode : It specifies the operation to be performed by the instruction issued to the computer system such as ADD to perform addition, MOV to move data from one location to another.

2. Operand : It specifies the memory locations where the input and output data are kept.

The instructions are classified into three categories according to the number of bytes required for their execution.
These are as follows :

1. One‐byte instructions : The instructions that require only one byte for their execution.

Example : MOV

2. Two‐byte instructions : The instructions that require one byte for their execution and one byte for their operand.

Example : MVI

3. Three‐byte instructions : The instructions that require one byte for their execution and two bytes for their operands. These instructions are used to specify the 16 bit operand with the instruction.

Example : STA

According to the number of instructions required and their complexity, based on these instruction sets, the computer architecture is also categorized into two categories : CISC and RISC.

1. CISC : It stands for complex instruction set computer. It provides a large number of instructions. These instructions include some complex instructions to perform complex tasks. These were developed to complete the complicated task in an easy and flexible manner, so that the compiler or other translator has to do very little work in translating the code written in some programming language into machine language. These instructions are memory‐based, and the computer requires a separate circuitry for these instructions. Therefore, more time is required for their execution and their design is complex.

Example : MULT, JA, JPO.

2. RISC : It stands for reduced instruction set computer. It is based on the concept that complex operation can also be performed using simple instruction. For example, the multiplication can be performed by loading the contents in memory; multiplying and then storing them back into the memory. These are the three simpler steps to perform the multiplication, instead of performing it in a single step. Therefore, the RISC computer uses sets of simple instructions that may be completed into a single cycle. Also, it is faster and less expensive than CISC.

Example : ADD, COMPARE.

The processing of an instruction by the CPU consists of following steps :

1. Fetching : The CPU fetch the instruction from the memory, and the program counter is replaced by the next instruction.

2. Decoding : The instruction is decoded by the CPU (CU and ALU) to determine the action to be performed.

3. Execute : The instruction is executed to perform a specific task.

4. Store : The result generated by the execution of an instruction is stored back into the memory.

The completion of all the steps for an instruction is called an instruction cycle of the machine cycle.

The instruction cycle is shown in figure below:

instruction cycle

Hacking | Denial of services | Database administrator (DBA)

What are the Hacking, Denial of services, Database administrator (DBA)?

Answer: Hacking, Denial of services, Database administrator (DBA)

Hacking :

Hacking is an art of exploring various security breaches. Each hackers has motives, methods and skills. Computer hacker is a typically knowledgeable person. He/she knows several different languages, familiar with UNIX and NT, Networking protocols. A hackers will look for internal and external system holes or break into the system. Cracker and hacker are two different terms. Cracker is making an attempt to break into the system by guessing or cracking user’s passwords. Crackers can easily be identified because their actions are malicious.

An ethical hacker possesses the skills, mindset, and tools of a hacker but is also trustworthy. Ethical hackers perform the hacks as security tests for their systems. Ethical hacking is also known as penetration testing or white hat hacking. It involves the same tools, and techniques that hackers use, but with one major difference. Ethical hacking is legal. Attack vector is a path for hacker. By means which a hacker can gain access to a computer system or computer server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome. Attack vectors enable hackers to use system vulnerabilities, including the human. Viruses, attachments of electronic mail, web pages, pop‐up windows, instant messages and chat rooms are example of attack vector. All of these methods require programming. To prevent vector, you can use firewall and anti‐virus software.

Hacking, Database administrator, Denial of services

Denial of services (DoS) :

Denial of services (DoS) is a network based attack whose objective is not to steal the system resources or access confidential data but it aims to prevent the legitimate users from accessing information or services by interrupting the normal use of the system services. DoS attacks fall under two categories :

1. One which eat up almost all system resources, preventing legitimate users from doing any useful work.

2. Another which target the network and disrupt its operation.

The most common type of DoS attack occurs when attackers mischievously flood a network server or a web server with multiple false requests for services in order to crash the network. In this situation, the server is not able to serve the genuine requests. This is a ʹdenial of serviceʹ because the legitimate users cannot use the network facility.

DoS attack does not damage information or access restricted areas but it can shut down a website, thereby making it inaccessible for genuine users. Several times, it becomes difficult for a website to determine that it has been attacked.

Example : A slowdown may be considered as due to network traffic.

It is usually impossible to prevent DoS attacks.

Protecting against DoS attack is as follows :
(i) Make a list of all resource consumed by every user.

(ii) Detect when the resources consumed by a given user exceed those allowed by some system policy.

(iii) After detecting attack, reclaim the consumed resources using as few additional resources as
possible or removal of an offending user.

Classification of DoS attacks :

(i) Logic attacks : This attack takes place in network software such as TCP/IP protocol stack or web server.

(ii) Protocol attacks : Protocol is a set of rules. This attack takes place to specific feature or implementation bug.
(iii) Bandwidth attacks : Attacker open many web pages and keep on refreshing for consuming
more bandwidth. After some time web site becomes out of service.

Types of DoS attacks :

1. Ping of death : Ping of death attack sends large oversized ICMP packets. Maximum legal size of IP packets is 65535 bytes. Because of limitations in the physical layer, packets may have to be fragmented and then reassembled at the destination. So this packet is fragmented for transport. The receiver then starts to reassemble the fragments as the ping fragments arrive. The total packet length becomes too large. It may possible that system may crash.
2. Smurf : It is a variation of ping attack. Attacker selects a network of unwitting victims. The attacker spoofs the source address in the ping packet so that it appears to come from the victim. Then the attacker sends this request to the network in broadcast mode by setting the last byte of the address to all 1s.

3. Teardrop attack : This attack misuse a feature designed to improve network communication. Attacker sends a series of datagram that cannot fit together properly. One datagram might say it is position 0 for length 60 bytes, another position 30 for 90 bytes so on. These fragment pieces overlap so they cannot be reassembled properly.

4. Malicious misrouting of packets : A attacker may attacks a router and change its routing table, resulting in misrouting of data packets, causing a denial of service.

5. Attacker send large number of UDP packets to non‐listing ports on the victim. This cause victim to respond with an ICMP host unreachable message for each packet that it receives.

Database administrator (DBA) :

The database administrator is a person having central control over data and programs accessing that data. He coordinates all the activities of the database system. The database administrator has a good understanding of the enterprise’s information resources and needs.

Functions of a DBA :

1. Schema definition : The creation of the original database schema. This involves writing a set of definitions in a DDL (data storage and definition language), compiled by the DDL compiler into a set of tables stored in the data dictionary.

2. Storage structure and access method definition : Writing a set of definitions translated by the data storage and definition language compiler.

3. Schema and physical organization modification : Writing a set of definitions used by the DDL compiler to generate modifications to appropriate internal system tables (Example : Data dictionary). This is done rarely, but sometimes the database schema or physical organization must be modified.

4. Granting user authority to access the database : Granting different types of authorization for data access to various users.

5. Specifying integrity constraints : Generating integrity constraints. These are consulted by the database manager module whenever updates occur.
6. Routine maintenance : It includes the following :
(i) Acting as liaison with users.
(ii) Monitoring performance and responding to changes in requirements.
(iii) Periodically backing up the database.