Unit 5 Questions Based on English Business Correspondence

Unit 5 Questions Based on English Business Correspondence

In this educational section we are going to share some most important Questions Based on English Business Correspondence and the syllabus prescribed mentioned here: Importance of Business Letters, Parts and Layout; Application, Contents of good Resume, guidelines for writing Resume, Calling/ Sending Quotation, Order, Complaint, E-mail and Tender.


          2 MARKS

  1. What is resume? Write the importance of resume?

 Resume is a selective record of an individual’s. It is a written document which summarizes ones’ professional and educational achievements, qualifications, skills, experiences. It should not be longer than two pages. It is needed for a person who is seeking job or any other official work. Since numbers of job seekers and employers are increasing, resumes are needed for applicants to differentiate & distinguish themselves, and prove their suitability for the applied post.


  1. How an open punctuation is different from closed punctuation and mixed punctuation?


  1. Open Punctuation: No commas and full stops are used in any part of letter except in the main body. None of the elements (except the main body) of letter is punctuated.
  2. Mixed Punctuation: Comma is put after date, salutation and complimentary close and full stop follows the last line of the inside address.
  3. Closed Punctuation: Each & every element of the letter is punctuated.

Main part of the letter is punctuated.

  1. Define letter of enquiry

Letter of enquiry- The letters that are written for collecting information about job seekers, prices, products, and services before awarding jobs, granting credit, making contracts and giving promotions are known as letters of inquiry. An enquiry letter is also written by a potential customer, on the lookout for a product or with a desire to avail the service offered by a seller or an organization. It is neither a contract nor does it entail any contractual obligation between the two. It is actually a preliminary exercise that may lead to a contract. These letters are written to a third party seeking information about either a job or a company that wishes to make business relationship.

Questions Based on English Business Correspondence

  1. List at least any three complimentary closes. Which and why do you prefer them?

Complimentary closes are the courteous leave taking by which writer ends the letter. The main three complimentary closes are:

Yours sincerely

Yours truly

Yours faithfully




  1. Describe in short the information that must be included in a quotation letter.

A quotation letter is a reply / response of any enquiry letter. It plays    important role in business. There are two types of quotation letters one is asking / inviting letter and second is sending letter. While drafting any quotation letter one must consider the following points:


  1. One must reply any quotation letter without delay.
  2. Quote the Prices of specific required goods
  3. Do specify the Mode of payment
  4. Mode of transportation
  5. Clearly mention all Terms and conditions
  6. If there are any Offers, discounts, do mention them
  7. And last but not the least mention all the taxes too.


  1. Write the importance of ‘You’ attitude in business letter.

You-attitude is a style of writing that places the writer in the position of reader, allowing a clear view of the situation from the reader’s perspective. The writer then communicates in a manner sensitive to the reader’s needs. It is a writing style that emphasizes readers rather than the writer. To write business letter writer should considerate reader’s desires, problems, circumstances, emotions and probable reactions. The written form of any Business letter must be ‘you view point’ instead of ‘I or we view point’ which emphasize reader’s interest and help to win the reader’s mind and attention


  1. What are the email writing etiquette?

The basic principles of writing an e-mail are as following:

  1. The tone of your email should always be professional.
  2. Always use proper salutations in your email.
  3. Fill in the subject line with the topic of your email.
  4. No more than two attachments, and provide a logical name.
  5. Send or copy others only on a need to know basis.
  6. Beware of the “reply all.”
  7. Keep it short and get to the point
  8. Know your audience
  9. Always include a signature
  10. Your e-mail is a reflection of you
  11. Respond in a timely fashion
  12. It is unprofessional to send emails with spelling errors, punctuation errors and other types of grammatical or technical mistakes. Such errors make it appear as though you do not possess adequate writing skills. Use the spell check feature of your email program to correct misspelled words, and always proofread your composition before hitting the “Send” button.

Questions Based on English Business Correspondence

  1. Why planning is necessary before writing a business letter?

The Business Letter will be the first impression that you make on someone therefore business letter should be very concise and to the point. Each letter in business writes to meet certain or different objectives It should be specific and accurate. When a letter is well planned there are less chances of anything going wrong. During planning the business the writer must have clear idea of what and how to write and irrelevant point must not be mentioned.



  1. Write a letter and place an order  for the following items with the classic Furniture, New Delhi:

Office chairs                                300

Wooden tables                             200

Steel almirahs                                50


PLACING THE ORDER (Semi/ Indented Block Layout)





22 Dec, 2015



The Classic Furniture,

New Delhi.


Attention line- Mr. M.N. Shukla(Sales Manager)


Subject: Placing the order.


Dear Sir

Thank you for your letter no DC/193/2015 on dated…… .

We are pleased to place an order for the following items on the terms and conditions agreed upon. Please send the items and include all the texts in your bill:


  1. Item Description                     Quantity
  2.   Office chairs                                300
  3. Wooden tables                             200
  4.  Steel almirahs                               50


Please send the items within 20 days of placing the order by the road transport. We shall make the payment by crossed cheque as desired by you soon after the arrival and inspection of the items.

Unit 4 Questions Based on English Developing Writing Skills

Unit 4 Questions Based on English Developing Writing Skills

In this section we  are serve some most important Questions Based on English Developing Writing Skills and these questions based on following syllabus: Planning, Drafting and Editing, Precise Writing, Precis, Technical definition and Technical description. Report Writing: Features of writing a good Report, Structure of a Formal Report, Report of Trouble, Laboratory Report, Progress Report.

  2 MARKS Questions

Q1: What is drafting?

Drafting is a formal document where the formulation of decisions & orders is done in writing form for communication to other. It is one of the important documents in business which plays very important role in day to day work. .

Q2: What is technical writing?

Technical writing is sometimes defined as simplifying the complex. It a form of documentation where processes are described, recorded & analyzed. It is written on the basis of complexity of the term or object. It does not deal with human emotions, sentiments or expressions

Questions Based on English Developing Writing Skills

Q3: Define the term ‘definition’.

Definition is a full explanation of a term, process or object. It point outs the essential features which distinguishes it from other objects.


Q4: What do you mean by art of condensation?

Summarizing, condensation, or précis writing is an art. It      aims at squeezing the meaning of a text into the fewest words. Condensation means process of making a book shorter by taking out anything that is not necessary. The process of condensation in creative writing is synonymous to précis writing.

 4 MARKS Questions

Q5: What is précis writing? What are the features of a good précis?

A précis is a concise and clear statement of the substance of a longer passage in a connected and readable shape. It must be accurate, brief and clear and in writer’s own word.  It is about one-third of the original. The main features of a good précis are:

  1. find out the central idea or the theme of the passage and separate the major points from the minor ones
  2. Precise is not reproducing a few sentences and deleting others. Precis writing is not the art of selection and deletion, it is the art of modify.
  3. Brevity is the soul of precis writing but not to be achieved at the cost of clarity.
  4. Precis has to be written, as far as possible, in your own words.

Questions Based on English Developing Writing Skills

Q6: Write the difference between general writing and technical writing?

  • The aim of General writing is to amusing & inspiring readers.  it includes  drama, novels, poetry etc. But technical writing aims at imparting knowledge, instructions, information & explanation of any technical object. It includes reports, proposals, resumes, manuals, etc.
  • The style of General writings is personal and subjective but technical writings are free from personal style. It is “professional” in tone and style.
  • More familiar and common words are used in general writing and technical writing is full of technical vocabulary.
  • Technical writing is always for a specific audience but general writing  is Not always for a specific audience

Questions Based on English Developing Writing Skills

Q7: What are the characteristics features of an essay?

  • An effective essay is well written and carefully edited in terms of grammar, punctuation, word usage, and spelling.
  • A good essay is organized with an introduction, main body, and conclusion.
  • To write a Good essay, the writer should write main points through careful discussion and by the use of specific details.
  • General is boring; specific is interesting. A good essay includes specific details to support the writer’s explanations

Q8: Define the terms Summary , abstract

Summary-  An overview of content that provides a reader with the overarching theme, but does not expand on specific details.  A summary describes a larger work (such as an entire book, speech, or research project), and should include noticeably less content then the original work. Summaries can save a reader time because it prevents the reader from having to actually go through and filter the important information from the unimportant.

Abstract – An abstract is a brief summary of the most important points in a scientific paper. It is shorter than summary which highlight the principle, scope and implication of the work. After reading the abstract, the reader knows the main points that the authors have to make. If you examine any paper in a professional journal you will see that each paper begins with an abstract. An abstract is published along with research articles in journals or magazines. It is a highly compressed description of the paper itself.

Q9: Give definition of following- Bluetooth, 4G.



Bluetooth is defined as being a short-range radio technology (or wireless technology) aimed at simplifying communications among Internet devices and between devices and the Internet. It also aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. It describes how mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) can be easily interconnected using a short-range wireless connection.



4G is the term used to refer to the next wave of high-speed mobile technologies that will be used to replace current 3G networks. The two top contenders are LTE and WiMAX, both of which are IP based networks that are built from similar, yet incompatible, technologies. Sprint and Clear wire are currently offering 4G WiMAX service in the USA, while Verizon and AT&T have committed to the use of LTE and are trailing their own 4G networks. Also known as: “fourth generation”

Q10:   What is a paragraph? Discuss qualities of well written paragraph.

A paragraph is a group of sentences organized around one single idea or topic. It is the Collection & comprised of sentences, but not random sentences, dealing with the central topic. It must contain relevant facts & information about the topic. In fact, the cardinal rule of paragraph writing is to focus on one idea. A well written paragraph takes its readers on a clear path, without deviation.

The four elements essential to good paragraph writing are:

  1. Unity. A paragraph begins with the topic sentence. Every paragraph must have one single idea that is expressed in its topic sentence. A paragraph is integrated around this main idea, with the supporting sentences which providing detail and discussion.
  2. Order. Order refers to the way you organize your supporting sentences. Whether you choose chronological order, order of importance, or another logical presentation of detail, a solid paragraph always has a definite organization. In a well-ordered paragraph, the reader follows along easily, aided by the pattern you’ve established. Order helps the reader grasp your meaning and avoid confusion.
  3. Coherence. Coherence is the quality that makes your writing understandable. Sentences within a paragraph need to connect to each other and work together as a whole. One of the best ways to achieve coherency is to use transition words. These words create bridges from one sentence to the next.
  4. Completeness. Completeness in a paragraph shows when it contents all information which reader needs.  If every sentence in a paragraph clearly and sufficiently supports the main idea, then the paragraph is  called
  5. Write a paragraph on any one: –  Health is wealth or Pollution


Health is wealth

To earn wealth one needs to have good health to work with efficiency. The man who is not having a good health spends lot of money on medicines and doctors. He is never cheer­ful. But we have to take precautions for building up a good health. Healthy body is always dependent on the healthy mind. For maintaining good health we should always be away from the bad habits like smoking, drinking and drug addiction. We should have morning walk regularly, light exercise in fresh air and a stroll after dinner. We should not be jealous of others. We should always take balanced and nutritious diet. One should always develop the habits of cleanliness to keep healthy. There is a very common and true saying that Health is Wealth. We should always keep in mind that wealth is wealth however health is the greatest wealth in this world. We should also motivate our kids and children to know something about this common saying using such as simple and easy essays. You can make your kids aware about their health using such simply worded essays.

Unit 3 Questions Based on English Nonverbal Communication and listening skills

Unit 3 Questions Based on English Nonverbal

Communication and listening skills

In this educational section we are going to share some most important questions based on English Nonverbal Communication and listening skills and syllabus are as follows: nonverbal communication, cross cultural communication, communicating through visuals, listening, types of listening, active listening, barriers to listening, improving listening skills.

2 Marks Questions

Q1: What is reading as a process?

Reading is an interactive process that goes on between the reader and the text and gives result in comprehension. It requires skills, strategies, and knowledge to determine the sense of the given text.

 Q2: What are the important features of a good note?

     A note is a piece of writing intended for internal use within the organization.

  1. It should be Complete in all respect
  2. It should be Clear and Concise  by using short, familiar and concrete expressions and words and to the point
  3. Correct- it should be factually correct
  4. Courteous and polite it should express ideas tactfully
  5. Organized properly, it should put ideas in the best order
  6. Visually attractive, it should be made attractive by dividing the note in serially numbered paragraphs, using headings liberally, and keeping the paragraphs of six to ten lines each.

Q3: What do you understand by skimming?

The skimming is one of the methods of reading in which reader reads the content / text superficially. In this method of reading reader gets the silent features of the text. It helps the reader to understand a passage / text briefly.

Q4: What are the steps of reading?

Four basic steps to Effective Reading

  1. First figure out the purpose of reading a particular text.
  2. Spot the parts of the text relevant to the identified purpose & ignore the rest.
  3. Choose the appropriate reading strategy that suits your purpose.
  4. Test or assess your comprehension during reading & also when the reading task in completed.

4 Marks questions

Q5: Write the difference between active and passive reading.

 Active reading is like a discussion between the reader & content

And always involved in questioning. It makes us thinking about what they are reading

In Passive reading reader is not engaged in the material and do not ask questions & not register the information. It pays little attention to identifying & remembering the main idea.

Q6: What are the benefits of effective reading?

The Benefit of Effective Reading are:

  • It can enhance general ability to use other language.
  • It Enhances your vocabulary
  • It Helps us to keep our  mind focused
  • It Helps in building confidence
  • It Gives us pleasure & relaxation
  • It Facilitates the development of various skills; predictions, comparing etc.
  • It Enables us to extract useful information
  • It can provide us with a comprehensible input.


Q7: What is the difference between note making and note taking?

 Note making is generating ideas or gathering information and thought from the content you are studding on your own while note taking is putting down points and ideas while a lecture is going on or making point from the speaker. In note making you are more concerned with highlighting information through reading whereas in Note taking means when listening faculty is more active during a class, lecture ,seminar or presentation Note-taking – when we read something for the first time and try to jot down the key information so that we can use it later.

Questions Based on English Nonverbal Communication and listening skills

Q8: What are the features of a good reading comprehension?

Reading Comprehension is a process of quick understanding of the text. It simply means to understand and explain what is present in the passage. It helps to improve our ability to understand the language. The comprehensive skill is in great demand and an important part of various examinations.. The main features of a good reading comprehension are;

7  Marks Questions

Q9: What is SQ3R Reading technique?

Reading is the most crucial skills among all four skills of communication. Effective reading skills are imperative to achieving success in personal as well as professional life. One of the effective reading methods is SQ3R Method. This method of reading helps us to understand the information in such a way that we can use it later at the right place and right occasion. It is a step-by-step strategic approach to learning and studying from textbooks. Because it helps you to discover the important facts and ideas that are contained in your textbook, and master and retain that information so that you are prepared for an examination.

SQ3R is an abbreviation to help you remember the steps and to make references to it simpler. The symbols stand for the steps followed in using the method: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review.

  1. SURVEY: (before class) Read the following: This survey should take no more than 10-25 minutes, even on the longest chapter. The purpose of surveying the chapter is to get a general idea of what it is going to be about, what kind of information the author gives, how many sub-topics the information is broken down into, and how much time you will have to spend reading it.
    • Chapter Title
    • Introduction
    • Objectives
    • Vocabulary
    • Summary
    • Review questions
    • Boldface headings
    • Graphics and their accompanying captions
  2. QUESTION: Turn each boldfaced heading into a question by using one of the following words: who, what, where, when, why, or how. The reason for creating a question out of each heading is to set a purpose for reading the material in more detail. When you are reading to find the answer to a specific question, you are reading actively.
  3. READ: Actively read the section of the text accompanying the heading for an answer to the question you asked yourself in step 2. The answer will usually be made up of the main idea(s) of the paragraph(s) and the supporting details. Read the section to find the answer. The purpose of reading is to find the answer to your question.
  4. RECITE: Recite the answer to each question to yourself. Put the answer into your own words, or rephrase the author’s words. Be sure that you can recall the answer, not just recognize the information as correct. Write the questions in your notebook along with a few key words or phrases that summarize the answer.  The purpose for doing this is to help you think about and understand what you have read. When you rewrite or rephrase what you read, your comprehension and retention will improve.
  5. REVIEW: To review, cover the answers and ask yourself the questions. If you can’t answer the question, look at your notes and test yourself again. Once you are sure you know and understand the question and answer, check it off. The purpose for reviewing is to help you prepare for the eventual test. Remember that very few people read textbooks for pleasure; they are read to acquire information and to remember and apply it in a testing situation. Reviewing helps you remember the information.
Questions Based on English Nonverbal Communication and listening skills

Q10: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Although the twentieth century saw the rise of women as professional musicians, the majority of composers and performers were, and still are, men. The music industry in the U.S. and Britain overwhelmingly reflects the values of a patriarchal society; the success or failure of a female artist is based largely on her physical appearance and gendered performance style. Blues, rock, and pop began as genres dominated by men, and thus included styles of dress, lyrics, and sound born of a male perspective. The history of these genres, then, is also a history of women seeking to locate their space within a predominately masculine musical environment.

Unit 2 Questions Based on English Communication

Unit 2 Questions Based on English Communication

This section contain some important questions based on English Communication and syllabus are as follows: Introduction, Meaning and Significance, Process of Communication, Oral and Written
Communication, 7 c’s of Communication, Barriers to Communication and Ways to overcome them,
Importance of Communication for Technical students.


QUE.1 Write the synonyms of the following words.                                                          MARKS 5

  1. Astonish b) Bliss c) pain  d) humid   e) spontaneous


  • Cofound, overwhelm
  • Happiness , joy
  • Ache, discomfort
  • Wet, moist
  • Impromptu, unplanned

 QUE.2 Write the antonyms of the following words.                                                              MARKS 5

  1. Fresh , b) coward , c) mean , d) often , e) pardon



  1. Stale
  2. Hero
  3. Kind
  4. Seldom
  5. punish

QUE.3 Give the One word substitute of the following.                                                            MARKS 5

  1. Someone’s life history written by another person- Biography
  2. One who takes pleasure in torturing other – Sadist
  3. A child whose parents are dead- orphan
  4. A woman who never gets married – Spinster
  5. A series of three novels/works of art produced by a writer/artist – Trilogy

QUE .4 Use the following homonyms / homophones in the sentences to understand their clear meanings.                                                                                                                        5   MARKS

  1. a) Write b). Bank      c) Fair      d) Birth       f)  Face

Right         Bank          Fare           Berth        Face

Please—————– our sincerely apologise.( choose appropriate homophones accept, except )


  1. A) Why don’t you write a novel?

We have right to speech in India.

  1.       B) We have our account in a government bank.

Banaras city is situated on the bank of holy river the Ganga.

  1. C) She is having fair complexion.

Railways fare is increased once again.

  1. d) She gave birth to a cute baby girl.

There is no vacant berth available.

  1.  Her face is seriously injured in an accident.

We must face our problems of life with confidence.


Questions Based on English Communication



QUE.5 The words by using suffix and/or prefixes.                                                                     MARKS

  1. I couldn’t find any ———— in his theory. (weakness)

(Put the word “weak” into the correct from using prefixes &/or suffixes)

  1. Make sentences by  using prefixes &/or suffixes of the following words

Educate,  Agree  , perfect,   Loud  ,  Danger



  1. Education is key to success.
  2. They all disagree on the statement.
  3. We answered all the queries
  4. He always speaks so
  5. Smoking is dangerous to health.

Questions Based on English Communication

QUE.6 Correct the following sentences and rewrite.                                              MARKS 5

  1. Myself is going to the college. (Correction – I am going to college)
  2. I met the real estate agent sold us our house. ( I met the real estate agent who sold us our house.
  3. I am writing letters all the morning. ( I have been writing letters all the morning)
  4. He cleverly turned to table on his opponent ( he cleverly turned the table o his opponent)
  5. He prevented him to smoke. ( he prevented him from smoking)



Unit 1 Questions Based on English Grammar

Unit 1 Questions Based on English Grammar

Important questions based on English Grammar from following Unit 1: Applied Grammar and usage, Parts of Speech, Articles, Tenses, Subject-Verb Agreement, Prepositions, Active and Passive Voice, Reported Speech: Direct and Indirect, Sentence Structure, Punctuation. Vocabulary Development: Using Dictionary and Thesaurus, Synonym, Antonym,


QUE. 1  what is punctuation? What do you understand by “open punctuation”?     MARKS 2        Punctuation is an indicators used in a written text.  The punctuation marks helps to separate sentences or its parts of a sentences form another. The open punctuation means


 QUE.2  Change the narrations.                                                                              MARKS 4

  1. He says, “I am busy”.
  2. He requested me not to leave him alone.
  3. He said to me, “I have often told you not to play with fire”
  4. The teacher said, “I am busy today”.

Questions Based on English Grammar

ANSWERS- 1.  He says that he is busy

  1. He said, please not to leave me alone.
  2. He told me that he had often warned me not to play with fire.
  3. The teacher said that she was busy that day.

QUE -2  Fill in the blanks                                                                                        MARKS 5

  1. Insert missing possessives form.

She makes all ——– own clothes——.

  1. Each of the scholars——- done well. (Has or have)
  2. ——— do you wish to see. (Who or whom)
  3. Supply the appropriate preposition-

Do you want to speak ——- regarding anything?

  1. He is a great doctor. He is not a good human being. (Join the sentences by using suitable conjunction.)

ANSWERS-( 1- her , herself , 2- has , 3- whom, 4- to , 5- but )


QUE 3- Do as directed:                                                                                        MARKS 7

  1. Transform the following into an exclamatory sentence-

It is a horrible night.

  1. Write the following sentence with the given adverb-

I go to pictures.  (Often)

  1. Rewrite the following sentence, using ‘enough to’.

You are quite old now; you ought to know better.

  1. Supply a verb in agreement with its subject-

Knowledge of the modern languages———- essential these days.

  1. A committee will ( look into/ look for) the scandal.
  2. Supply the appropriate preposition-

He is indebted – his friend.

  1. Some people don’t know how to react to a ——( complement/compliment)



  1. What a horrible night it is!
  2. I often go to pictures.
  3. You are old enough to know better.
  4. Knowledge of the modern languages is essential these days.
  5. A committee will look into the scandal.
  6. He is indebted to his friend.
  7. Some people don’t know how to react to a compliment

Questions Based on English Grammar

QUE 4.  Select appropriate grammatical structure for the each blank.              MARKS 2

  1. Maps are used to show geographical distribution—————-
  2. By data b) from data c) of data.
  3. To err is ————-
  4. Human being b) humane   c) human


QUE 5- Do as directed:                                                                     5 MARKS


  1. The dog jump (into/onto) the lake.
  2. She does not like mangoes.
  3. We must work, or we cannot be happy( change into simple sentence)
  4. Add ‘a’ , ‘an’, some, or ‘the’ where necessary
  5. a) There is ____ fly in—– lemonade.
  6. b) ——- sugar on the table is from Cuba.
  7. c) ———- athlete should follow a well-balanced diet.
  8. d) French is ——- easy language.



  1. The dog jump into the lake.
  2. Mangoes are not liked by her.
  3. Simple sentences- we must work to be happy.
  4. (a) a , the (b) the (c) an (d) an


QUES 5  Changes the voices                                                                        MARKS 5

  1. The father explained them the exercise. (Change the voice)
  2. Post the letter. (Change the voice)
  3. The government has sent him a message. (Change the voice)
  4. The book is being read by the most of the class. (Change the voice if required)
  5. We admire the brave.



  1. The exercises were explained to them by the father.
  2. The letter is posted/ let the letter be posted
  3. A message has been sent to him by the government.
  4. In Passive
  5. The brave are admired.

Questions Based on English Grammar

.QUE 6. Do as directed:                                                                                      MARKS 2

  1. When I ———– him, he ————————-badminton. (Use correct form of tense using – see, play)  (SAW , WAS PLAYING )
  2. ———- teaching, Ankit also does English coaching. (Use preposition)(Besides)


QUE 7. Do as directed:                                                                             MARKS  4

  1. The number of tigers in the country——————decreasing. (Is/ are) (are)
  2. One of my sisters (is/are) going on a trip.(is)
  3. One of the students said,’ (A/AN/THE) professor is late today. (the)
  4. She always (cook) in the morning (supply the correct tense). (cooks)

QUE 8. Do as directed:                                                                             MARKS  5

  1. He showed me the greatest respect. (CHNGE THE VOICE)
  2. The boy is climbing the cliff. CHNGE THE VOICE)
  3. Do you have (some/any) food? (Use appropriate adjective)
  4. When we reached the station, the train—– already……. (use correct form of verb ‘ leave)
  5. Statistics are a very scoring subject.(correct the sentence)


  1. The greatest respect was showed to me.
  2. The cliff is being climbed by the boy
  3. Some
  4. Had , left
  5. Statistics is a very scoring subject.

QUE 9. Do as directed:                                                                             MARKS  10

  1. Loud/ loudly He cleared his throat. (Use correct adverb). (loudly)
  2. Identify parts of speech in the different usage of underlined word;
    1. They arrived soon after. (———–adverb)
    2. They arrived after (————-pronoun)
    3. They arrived after we had left. (—–conjunction)
  3. (Its/ it’s) my duty to serve my parents. (Use correct pronoun) (it’s)
  4. Everyone has come, (hasn’t he/ haven’t they)? (Use correct pronoun) ( haven’t they)
  5. Find the Transitive & Intransitive verb:

a). some animals run ( run- intransitive)

b). I heard a story. (Heard- transitive)

  1. Make the following sentence negative-
  2. a) He comes here every day. (He does not come here every day)

7.. “You shall come back by eleven,” my father told me. (Change the narration)

(My father advised/asked me to come back by eleven.)

  1. Someone has found the boy the people wanted.

The boy that the people wanted has been found.

  1. How do people learn languages?

How the languages are learnt by the people.

  1. I  first met him (A/AN/THE) year ago.(A)


Gerunds and Infinitives in English Grammar

Gerunds and Infinitives in English Grammar


  • What are gerunds and infinitives?
    What is a gerund example?
    What is the difference between a gerund and an infinitive?
    What is the difference between a gerund a participle and an infinitive?
    What is an example of an infinitive?
    What is the function of an infinitive in a sentence?
    What is the participle in a sentence?
    What is the use of a gerund?
    What is the difference between a gerund and a participle?

Gerunds and Infinitives


Gerund can function as: NOUNS
(subjects, objects, subject complements)

As subjects, they take a singular verb.
Only Gerunds can be object of the preposition.

To form gerunds, use the base form + ing
I enjoy learning English

To form negative gerunds, use not + gerund
Not speaking English well is my biggest problem in this country.

  1. Gerunds used as subject of the sentence.
    Dancing is fun.
    Drinking water is good for health.
    2.  Gerunds used as objects
    He enjoys working with children.

    3.  Gerunds used as object of the preposition
    I am thinking about taking the children to   Mexico.

    4.  By + gerund
    You get good grades by studying hard.

  2. Go + gerund- Recreational activities: camping, dancing, sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging,
    I will go fishing with you tomorrow.
  3. Do + a lot of + Gerund

Jenny did a lot of ridding when she was in     college.

They will be doing a lot of traveling next         month.

  1. Would rather/sooner & prefer/would prefer

Jenny prefers reading to writing.

  1. As object of a transitive verb

            We cannot bear eating rotten stuff.

            They began laughing.

Gerunds and Infinitives in English Grammar

Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds

  • Be excited about, complain about, talk about, think about, worry about
  • Apologize for, blame for
  • Believe in, interested in, succeed in
  • Take care of, instead of, be accused of
  • Insist on
  • Keep from, prevent from
  • In addition to, look forward to, be used to

By + gerund
You get good grades by studying hard.

go + gerund
Recreational activities:
camping, dancing, sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging,
I will go fishing with you tomorrow.

Some expressions are used with gerunds
Be busy, can’t help, have fun,
it’s no use, it’s not worth.


Verbs that take only Gerunds

  • Appreciate
  • Avoid
  • Delay
  • Deny
  • Discuss
  • Dislike
  • Enjoy
  • Excuse
  • Finish
  • understand
  • Keep
  • Mention
  • Mind
  • Postpone
  • Quit
  • Recall
  • Recommend
  • Resent
  • suggest
Gerunds and Infinitives in English Grammar


To form infinitives use
to + base form of the verb
I want to dance

To form negative infinitives use
Not + infinitive
He decided not to go the party.


Infinitives in the subject position

To live in the United States is my dream

It is my dream to live in the United States.

Verbs that take infinitives

Verb + infinitives – agree, appear, decide

hope, intend, learn, offer, plan, seem, tend, wait, can afford

Verb + Noun phrase + infinitive – cause, convince, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, trust, warn, advise, encourage

Verbs that come directly after the infinitive or have a noun phrase – ask, beg, choose, expect, need, want, would like, promise


Infinitive of purpose

In order to

I came here in order to learn.

Infinitive with too and enough
too + adjective or adverb + infinitive
She is too young to vote.

Adjective or adverb + enough + infinitive
They are old enough to vote.

Adjectives followed by infinitives

Afraid, amazed, anxious, ashamed, careful, delighted, eager, fortunate, glad, happy, lucky, pleased, ready, sad, sorry,


Gerunds often follow verbs that indicate that an action is happening or has happened.

We enjoy going to concerts.
(you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done –
not things you haven’t done yet.)


Infinitives often follow verbs that indicate that an action will or could happen.

We hope to go to the concert.
(You can hope for things that could happen not things that have already happened)


Verbs that are followed by
a noun phrase + infinitive
can also be followed by a gerund.

The gerund makes it general and the infinitive make specific the person indicated.

They allow smoking in this building.
They allowed me to smoke in the house.


Some verbs can be followed by both gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning.

Begin, hate, like, start, love, prefer, continue

I like cooking.
I like to cook.

She started losing weight
She started to lose weight.


Some verbs although they can be used after both gerunds and infinitives have a difference in meaning.

Remember, forget, regret, stop, try, get

She stopped smoking.
She stopped to smoke.

They forgot buying bread.
They forgot to buy bread.



When a specific performer of the gerund action needs to be indicated, a possessive noun or a possessive determiner is used.

I really appreciate Kiran’s/him writing  that letter for me.

Peter’s/his coming late really annoys me.

When an infinitive functions as a subject or a subject complement, any stated subject of the infinitive should be preceded by for. If a pronoun follows for, it must be in object form.

When the subject of a gerund is stated, it takes the possessive form.


When an infinitive functions as a subject or a subject complement, any stated subject of the infinitive should be preceded by for. If a pronoun follows for, it must be in object form.

When the subject of a gerund is stated, it takes the possessive form.

For people to see is a wonderful gift.

Her desire was for them to take a trip around the world

They hoped for her to be able to attend the concert.


Infinitives can occur in the progressive but gerunds cannot.
To be doing

It is used to indicate an activity in progress or ongoing
She had hoped to be working

Your neglecting your teeth will cause an earlier return to the dentist.

Their denying the allegation was understandable.

I didn’t like the dog’s barking all night.

Agreement of Subject or Verb in English Grammar

Agreement of Subject or Verb in English Grammar


  • What is agreement of subject and verb?
    What is correct subject verb agreement?
    What is the meaning of subject in English grammar?
    What is the subject?
    What the subject and verb in a sentence have to do?
    What is a subject verb agreement examples?
    What is a mistake in subject verb agreement?
    What is the verb in a sentence?
    What is an example of a subject?
    What is a complete subject in a sentence examples?

Agreement of Subject or Verb

A singular subject demands a singular verb

He speaks English with a strange accent.
She rushes to school in the morning

A plural subject demands a plural verb.

We speak English with a strange accent.
My friends play different games at school.

Indefinite pronouns such as everyone & everybody etc, feel plural to some writers, but they are always singular – and take a singular verb.

Everyone associated with the project is proud to be part of the effort.

Someone has to be responsible.

More Credible

Don’t be confused by phrases that come between the subject pronoun and its verb — phrases that may contain plural words.

Each of the project partners is responsible for writing a chapter summary.

The verb that accompanies pronouns such as all and some will be determined by whether the pronoun is referring to something that is COUNTABLE or not.

Some of the students in the cafeteria have voted already.

Some of the grain was ruined by the flood.


None is usually regarded as singular, but it can be used as a plural pronoun.

None of the representatives has indicated how he or she will vote. OR None of the representatives have indicated how they will vote.

With fractional expressions (fractions or decimal equivalents), the verb will be determined by what is being measured: is it COUNTABLE or not.

Two-fifths of the grain is ruined.

One-half of the students were convinced that there

would be no final exams this year.

Of all the returns we have counted so far,

fifty percent are in favor of the referendum.

A majority of the student body is in favor of asking the Dean to stay another year.

Phrases such as together with, along with, and as well as seem to join subjects, but they do not work the same as and: they are not conjunctions.

Some of the hay in the barn, as well as some major pieces of farm equipment, was ruined in the flood.

The major spending bill before Congress, together with some other bills that are awaiting action, is going to cost taxpayers plenty.


In formal writing, when either and neither appear as a subject alone (without their sidekicks or and nor), they are singular. This is true even though the subject seems to be two things.

Neither of these choices appears to be satisfactory.

The purchasing office will lend me a company car or compensate me for travel expenses. Either is fine with me.


When either and neither act as correlative conjunctions, the subject that is closer to the verb determines the number (singular or plural form) of the verb.

Either the teachers or the principal has to be responsible for the year-end festival.

Has either the President or his aides been in touch with you?

Neither the principal nor the teachers are at fault.

Not only the students, but also the teacher plans to be at the


When an expletive construction (there is, there are, here is, etc.) begins a sentence, the subject (which determines the number of the verb) comes after the verb.

There are several explanations for the Civil War.

We were looking down the street when —all of a sudden — here come Joe and his two brothers.

If the management team takes this attitude, there is very little latitude for negotiation.

Subjects joined by ‘and’ require a plural verb.

The White dog and the Red dog are two characters from the Adventures book.

Note:        But if the Article is mentioned once. the verb followed must be in Singular Number

The White and Red dog is the character from the Adventure book.

Note:        Sometimes two subject are regarded as representing one idea and then the verb is singular.

Work makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

Slow and steady wins the race.


Non count nouns take a singular verb:
money, air, happiness, vocabulary, homework,
Irregular plurals:
child, deer, fish, cattle, ox, man, woman, goose, ox, foot, tooth, sheep, mouse, louse, baby, potato, loaf, wife. crisis, criterion, medium, nucleus
Singular or plural:
some, any, a lot of, all, most, none
Always singular
much, a little, little, every, each
Always plural
both, few, many, several,
Nouns that are Always Plural
pajamas, trousers, scissors, slacks,
pants, jeans, glasses

Agreement of Subject or Verb in English Grammar

The subject and verb agree even when words come between them.

Maria usually comes to class on time.

My best friend from my high school years fits the description.

The verb in a relative clause agrees with the noun that the clause modifies.

The man who lives next door is my father.
A four-year-old child.
a three-month vacation.

Three years is a long time.

Sixty dollars is too much to pay for that shirt.
Here, There, Word order -verb agrees with subject that comes after

Here are the items, I bought for you.

There is only one movie for children at this theater.
Nouns ending in –s that are singular: news, physics, measles, mathematics, economics, arthritis, diabetes, laryngitis, tuberculosis, tennis, athletics, linguistics, politics, statistics, gymnastics

Economics is very interesting


Collective nouns
can take either a singular or a plural verb.
When the singular is used, the focus is on the group as a whole.

When the plural is used, the focus is on the individual members of the group.

  • Community
  • Jury
  • Band
  • Committee
  • Team
  • audience
  • Faculty
  • Family
  • Police
  • Orchestra
  • Crowd
  • class

The jury has not yet reached a verdict.
The jury are coming out of the jury room now.

The Conjunction in English Grammar

The Conjunction in English Grammar


  • What is an example of a conjunction?
    What are all the conjunctions?
    What is a conjunction word?
    What does conjunction mean in English?
    What is a conjunction for kids?
    What are the different kinds of conjunctions?
    What does the conjunction and do?
    What is the definition of a conjunction in grammar?

The Conjunction

Conjunctions are the words we use to link or join two or

more sentences together or two words within the same


Conjunctions are of three kinds:

Coordinating, Subordinating and Correlative.

Coordinating Conjunctions: Join two sentences that work at the same level of importance in our speech, both actions are equally important.  Or  Join two main clauses. They come between the clauses and are preceded by a comma.

These conjunctions are: and, but, still, so, only,

therefore, yet, nevertheless, for, however, either…or…,while, neither….Nor,

Coordinating Conjunctions: Join two sentences that work at the same level of importance in our speech,
both actions are equally important.  Or  Join two main clauses. They come between the clauses and are preceded by a comma.

 Compound Sentence: are sentences that work at the same level of importance in our speech,
both actions are equally important.

 Coordinating Clause: Are sentences that work at the same level of importance in our speech,
both actions are equally important.

Coordinating Conjunctions

  • For: reason, means because
  • And: connects 2 sentences with similar ideas (positive/ negative)
  • Nor: connects 2 negative sentences with inverted word order
  • But: connects 2 sentences with contrasting or opposite ideas
  • Or: connects 2 sentences that express alternatives or choices
  • Yet: surprise
  • So: connects a reason and a result

 The Conjunction in English Grammar


We had a salad and an ice cream.

(In this example we are using the coordinating conjunction

‘and’ to join two Objects within the same sentence.)

We went to the swimming pool and had lunch there.

(In this example we are using the coordinating conjunction

‘and’ to join two different Sentences, ‘we went to the

swimming pool’ with ‘(we) had lunch there’.)


Sudhir tried and succeeded.

Sapana is brilliant and Shashi has a pleasant personality.

We tried but did not succeed.

Did you go out or stay at home?


Coordinating Conjunctions

Addition:  My father loves kitchen gadgets, and he buys a new one every week.

Contrast: A few of the gadgets are useful, but most of them just take up space.

Result: We ran out of space for them in the kitchen, so he started to store them in the living room.

Choice: My mother asked my father to please stop buying gadgets, or she would throw them out.

Surprise: Of course, Dad came home the next week with three new ones, yet Mom wasn’t upset.

Reason: Maybe she realized that buying little gadgets is harmless, for none of them cost a lot of money.

Addition: (negative): After all, he doesn’t buy sports cars, nor does he bring home a new yacht every week.

Content connected by coordinating conjunctions must be parallel.

They must belong to the same grammatical category. (e.g. Adjective, Adverb, Noun phrase, Verb phrase, Infinitive or Gerund phrase).

The Italian film Life Is Beautiful made me both laugh and cry.

It contained not only comic but also tragic scenes.

Either my father or my mother will meet me at the airport.

Neither my father nor my mother will meet me at the airport.


Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions: are used to join, or simply to

show any relation, between the idea or different ideas.

Notice the parallel structure in these clauses joined by

correlative conjunctions:

These conjunctions are: either…or, if…. then, neither….

nor, no sooner … than, both … and, scarcely… when, not

only … but also, rather … than whether … or


He led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of

his enthusiasm.

Whether she wins this race or loses, it doesn’t matter as

long as she does her best.

Congress has provided the means for both, regulating

pesticides and ordering their removal if dangerous.




both … and                   He is both intelligent and good-natured.

hardly …when    He had hardly begun to work, when he                          was called.

if …then               If that is true, then what happened is not                        surprising.

no sooner …than          No sooner had I reached the corner, than                        the bus came.

not only …but also She is not only clever, but also hard-                                     working.

rather …than       I would rather go swimming than go to                           the library.

scarcely …when Scarcely had we left home, when it                                  started to rain.

whether …or        Have you decided whether you will come                      or not?

Paired Coordinating Conjunctions:

Say something constructive.
Don’t say anything at all (either …or)

Indians pay income tax.
They are charged high sales taxes in some states. (not only…, but also)

He didn’t ask for permission.
He didn’t give me an explanation of his action. (neither…,nor)

The Conjunction in English Grammar


Using… Not either or Neither

Subject + modal + not + either
The teacher isn’t here, and the students aren’t either.
Neither + modal + subject
The teacher isn’t here, and neither are the students.

Using …Too or So

Subject + auxiliary + too
I can dance the Tango, and my husband can too
So + auxiliary + subject
I can dance the Tango, and so can my husband.

(not either) – I don’t have my book.
Claudia doesn’t have her book.
(too) – John has been to South America.
Karen has been to South America.
(so ) – My nephew lost his passport.
My sister lost her passport.
(Neither) – You haven’t done your homework.
I haven’t done my homework.


Subordinating Clause
The subordinate clause is called a dependent clause while the simple sentence is called the independent clause.

Subordinating Conjunctions:
They are: that, although, though, because of, while, since,
until, as, as if, as though, so that, when, lest, if, in order
that, unless, where, wherever and why and whether…..or.
However, a subordinate clause can sometimes come after
and sometimes before a main clause.

Articles in English Grammar

Articles in English Grammar


  • What are articles used for?
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    What is a article examples?
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    How do you end an article?


There are two kinds of articles:

Definite:              the

Indefinite:          a, an

Indefinite in the following cases: A & An

We use ‘an’ with words that begin with a Vowel sound.
an egg, an apple, an orange

We use ‘an’ with words that begin with a Consonant sound.
an honest person, an hour,

We use ‘a’ with words that begin with a Consonant sound.
a book, a car, a horse, a house

We use ‘a’ with words that begin with a Vowel sound.
a unit, a university,



Indefinite in the following cases: A


  • With certain numbers: Before half

when half follows a whole number:

1 ½ kilo = one and a half kilo or a kilo and half

But ½ kg = half a kilo (no a before half),

though a + half + noun is sometimes possible:

  • When the person, place or thing is unknown to the reader or the speaker, as placed before Mr/Mrs/Miss + surname:
  • a Mr. Sharma     a Mrs. Sharma
  • When you mean “one”: a glass, a cup of tea, a boy
  • When you want to identify or define a person, place, or thing (singular): a cow is a useful animal

Indefinite in the following cases: A

  • Before a singular countable noun which is used as an example of a class of things:

A bus must be insured = All buses

  • In exclamations before singular, countable nouns:

Such a long queue!         What a pretty girl!

  • But plurals do not take articles:

Such  long queues!          What pretty girls!

  • With a noun complement- Names of professions:

He’ll be a singer.

  • In certain expressions of quantity:

A lot of, a couple of,  a great deal of, a great many, a dozen  (but one dozen is also possible).

Let’s call a friend, and go on a picnic.

My wife and I bought a new house last year.  It has a small yard, so we planted some flowers.

I came here a year ago.

She’s a doctor.

Indore is a city in M.P.

It’s a coffee grinder.


Omission of a/an

  • Before uncountable nouns: uncountable nouns are always singular and are not used with a, an

I want some advise or help.

  • Before names of meals, except when these are preceded by an adjective

She gave us a good lunch.

  • Article is also used when it is a special meal given to

celebrate something or in someone’s honour.

We were invited to a dinner given to welcome the

new chief.

  • But note that in The rent is Rs. 500 a week.


Some words commonly occur with the (0) article, especially in certain phrases with prepositions:

breakfast, lunch, dinner, go to bed, school, class, college, come by train, bus, plane, car

The word coffee is a generic noun. It is a symbol for coffee in general.

Do you like coffee?
Would you like some coffee?
The coffee is very strong.


The definite article –the

  • Specific person, place, or thing.
  • All common nouns- no count, singular count, and plural count.
  • When we mention a noun for the second time.
  • The reader knows the person, place, or thing.
    Time periods (in the morning, in the afternoon,) ( the past, the beginning, the spring, the 20th century)
  • Parts of the body in a prepositional phrase. (on the leg)
  • Social and economic classes and some other special groups.( the middle class, the clergy)
  • Adjectives that mean a group of people who are (the rich, the homeless)


The definite article –the

  • All proper nouns that contain an –of phrase.( The United States of America, The University of Texas)
  • Geographic names that contain the word kingdom, republic, or union
  • Bodies of water (except lakes and bays)
  • Regions (the Middle East, the South)
  • Points of the globe (the equator, the north pole)
  • Deserts and forests ( the Sahara desert, the Black Forest)
  • Buildings, bridges, named roads, tunnels, towers, monuments
  • Hotels, theaters, libraries, museums
  • Historical periods

Articles in English Grammar

The definite article –the

  • Names of organizations, departments, and political parties
  • Musical Instruments listen to the radio play the piano
  • Names of historical documents
  • Names of newspapers
  • Plural family names (used to refer to all members of a family.)
  • Adjectives naming nationalities that mean “the people from this country”
  • Titles that refer to a unique person (the Pope, the President)
  • Electronic sources
  • Ships and trains (the Titanic)


The definite article –the

  • Use –the in these phrases: go to the bank, the store, the post office, the bathroom. Go to the theater, the movies
    go to the doctor, the dentist, the hospital call the police,

Omission of –the

  • Nature, (Where it means the spirit creating and motivating the world of plants and animals) etc. is used without the:

If we interfere with nature, play with fire, play with water……………..

Omission of –the

  • Before names of the places except as shown above, or before names of people.
  • Before abstract nouns except when they are used in a particular sense;

Men fear death ( no Article)

The death of the Minister left his party without a leader.

  • After a noun in the possessive case, or a possessive adjective: the girl’s father = the father of the girl.

It is my (red) dress =       The (red) dress is mine.

  • Others

on campus, off campus, on foot, by bus, by train, go home, go to work, go to school  go to church, play football

Omission of –the

  • Before names of meals:

The Wedding breakfast was held in my father’s office.

I had breakfast at 9 in the morning.

  • Before names of games:

The football game was good;      He plays football / golf.

  • Before parts of the body and articles of clothing, as these normally prefer a possessive adjective:

Raise your right hand;                    He took off his coat.

Preposition in English Grammar

PREPOSITION in English Grammar


  • What is the preposition in a sentence?
    What are all of the prepositions?
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    What are the common prepositions?
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    How many prepositions are there in the world?
    What is a preposition for kids?


IN:          Used with period of time,  at the end of a future,             point in time, with big place.

at the end of time: In two months time, in 1985, in           January, in the morning,

in good time, in Indore.

not exact time: I was in time for class.

The book is in the box.

The Girl is holding telescope in her hand

Preposition in English Grammar

INTO: used for Motion

Rohit is looking into the mailbox.

The teacher is pouring the sand into the timer.

AT:         Used with point of time,               with a small area

names of festivals: at Christmas, At three o’clock, at       this moment, at seventeen.

ON:        Used for both position and movement,

with exact time, with dates and days.

She was sitting on the wall.

The 9.30 train started on time.

They will come on Monday.

ON and AT:

The pen is on the box.

The man is sitting at the table.

The woman is looking at the clock on the wall.

BY:         Used to denote when an action will be finished,

in passive voice, with persons.

The story was written by me.

most often used with future tense:

He will probably arrive by six o’clock.

WITH:   Used with instruments

You can’t open the front door with out the key.

anything this is carried.

Cut with a knife,

a lady with a black handbag.

SINCE: Used with a point of time,

in the perfect tense,

as an adverb and conjunction.

I have lived here since 1952.

Vishal left school in 1989, I haven’t seen him since.          (Adverb)

Rajnee has worked for us ever since she left school.       (Conjunctions)

Preposition in English Grammar

FROM: Used with starting point of time that is unknown

Hindu religion has been in exercise from time    immemorial.

in the past and to denote place.

Usually followed by to, till or until.

ONTO: denotes movement involving a change of level

The child climbed onto his roofs.

We lifted her onto the table.

WITHIN: Used before the end of a specific period of time.

We will return within two day.

UPON: Used for motion/to denote movement involving a           change of level

The cat jumped upon the rat.

BELOW: Used to denote lower level in position,

status and expectation.

It is below my dignity to talk to her.

We could see the valley below us.

ABOVE: Used to mean higher than

The helicopter hovered above us.

He saw the mountains towering above him.

OVER: Used to convey many things.

At noon the sun is over our heads. (Above)

She cannot get over her disappointment. (Beyond)

Our parents over all bless us. (Superior)

It is all over with him. (Conclusion)

BENEATH: denotes under, physically or figuratively.

They rested beneath the tree.


BESIDE: Used for something that is near or next.

                                We camped beside a lake.

He sat beside his mother.

BESIDES: Used to mean in addition, as well as.

We speak Hindi besides English.

AFTER: Used to denote end of time in the past

She returned the book after three week.

FOR: Used to show period of time, beneficiary.

She has worked here for five years.

My brother bought a gift for me.

OF: Used in fixed expressions with the sense of from,   belonging to

Die of, made of, ask of, expect of, John of Mumbai.

OFF:       Used to mean the surface of and also down from

Take the book off the table.

She fell off her horse.

DURING:              During is used with known periods of time.

During the middle ages, during the summer,  during        childhood, during this week.

ASSIGNMENT: Fill in the blanks suitable prepositions :

  1. The rod is ——— the cup.
  2. The toy is running  ———- the surface.
  3. The cat is sitting ——— the chair.
  4. The doll is standing ———- the wall.
  5. The toy is ______the bucket.
  6. The rat is _______the chair.
  7. The sun is hidden _______the clouds.
  8. Eatables are ________the fridge.
  9. The baby elephant is ______of
  10.     the mother elephant.
  11. The boy standing ______the trophy and the ball.

Preposition in English Grammar


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