What is Intelligent Network? Intelligent Network (IN): Overview of Intelligent Network Architecture Over the last thirty years, one of the major changes in the implementation of Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTNs) has been the migration from analogue to digital switches. Coupled Read more…


What is Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)? Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): The ISDN is an abbreviation of Integrated Services Digital Network. The current communications networks vary with the type of service, such as telephone network, telex network, and digital Read more…


What is the Digital Switching System? Digital Switching System: A Digital switching system, in general, is one in which signals are switched in digital form. These signals may represent speech or data. The digital signals of several speech samples are Read more…


Basic Principles of Electronic Exchanges: The prime purpose of an exchange is to provide a temporary path for simultaneous. bi- directional transmission of speech between (i) Subscriber lines connected to same exchange (local switching) (ii) Subscriber lines and trunks to Read more…


How to Define Telephone Traffic? Basic Concept of Telephone Traffic:  2.0 Introduction Telephone traffic is originated by the individual needs of different subscribers and so it is beyond the control of telephone administration. Any and every subscriber can originate a Read more…


What are the Electronic Exchanges? What are the advantages and types of Electronic Exchanges? Electronic Exchanges: To overcome the limitations of manual switching; automatic exchanges, having Electro-mechanical components, were developed.  Strowger exchange, the first automatic exchange having direct control feature, appeared Read more…


Data Creation in Local Exchange (LE) There are basically different type of technologies used as local exchange. An RAX has been tested successfully with technologies like EWSD,OCB,5ESS and C-DOT. To facilitate the BSNL staff for connecting AN-RAX with above mentioned Read more…


Software Architecture AN-RAX The Software architecture is completely modular. It comprises of entities which operate in a layered environment, with physical, data link and network layers, to support the communication between AN-RAX and LE. Most of the entities use an Read more…


Hardware Architecture AN-RAX OVERVIEW The integrated circuits used in the C-DOT 256P AN-RAX hardware have low power dissipation and high operational reliability. The components used are based on Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOS), Complementary MOS (CMOS), Low-Power Schottky Transistor-Transistor Logic (LSTTL), and Read more…

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